Slide 1: 1 PROF. JOSÉ LUIS CABRERA BERNAL Universidad del Valle de México THE EIGHT ELEMENTS THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M. OF T. Q. M. Slide 2: 2 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M. Total Quality Management “Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's operations, with processes being done right the first time and defects and waste eradicated from operations. To be successful implementing TQM, an organization must concentrate on the eight key elements: ” Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950's and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980's. Slide 3: 3 INTEGRITY TRUST TEAMWORK LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION ETHICS TRAINING RECOGNITION THE EIGHT
T. Q. M. Slide 4: 4 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M. For this, TQM requires the help of those eight key elements.
These elements can be divided into four groups according to their function.
I. Foundation - It includes: Ethics, Integrity and Trust.
II. Building Bricks - It includes: Training, Teamwork and Leadership.
III. Binding Mortar - It includes: Communication.
IV. Roof - It includes: Recognition. TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that
makes quality the driving force behind
improvement initiatives. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.I.- FOUNDATION : 5 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.I.- FOUNDATION TQM is built on a foundation of
It fosters openness,
and allows involvement by everyone.
This is the key to unlocking the ultimate potential of TQM. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.1.- ETHICS : 6 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.1.- ETHICS Ethics is the discipline concerned with good and bad in any situation.
It is a two-faceted subject represented by organizational and individual ethics.
Organizational ethics establish a business code of ethics that outlines guidelines that
all employees are to adhere to in the performance of their work.
Individual ethics include personal rights or wrongs. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.2.- INTEGRITY : 7 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.2.- INTEGRITY Integrity implies honesty, morals, values, fairness, and adherence to the facts and sincerity.
The characteristic is what customers (internal or external) expect and deserve to receive.
People see the opposite of integrity as duplicity.
TQM will not work in an atmosphere of duplicity. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.3.- TRUST : 8 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.3.- TRUST Trust is a by-product of integrity and ethical conduct.
Without trust, the framework of TQM cannot be built.
Trust fosters full participation of all members.
It allows empowerment that encourages pride ownership and it encourages commitment. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.3.- TRUST : 9 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.3.- TRUST It allows decision making at appropriate levels in the organization,
fosters individual risk-taking for
continuous improvement and helps to
ensure that measurements focus on
improvement of process and are not used
to contend people.
Trust is essential to ensure customer satisfaction.
So, trust builds the cooperative environment essential for TQM. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.II. Bricks : 10 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.II. Bricks Basing on the strong foundation of
bricks are placed to reach the roof of recognition. It includes:
LEADERSHIP THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.4.- TRAINING : 11 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.4.- TRAINING Training is very important for employees to
be highly productive.
Supervisors are solely responsible for
implementing TQM within their departments,
and teaching their employees the
philosophies of TQM. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.4.- TRAINING : 12 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.4.- TRAINING Training that employees require are:
the ability to function within teams,
performance analysis and improvement,
business economics and
technical skills. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK : 13 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK To become successful in business,
teamwork is also a key element of TQM.
With the use of teams, the business will
receive quicker and better
solutions to problems.
Teams also provide more permanent
improvements in processes
and operations. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK : 14 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK In teams, people feel more comfortable
bringing up problems that may occur,
and can get help from other workers
to find a solution and put into place.
There are mainly three types of teams that
TQM organizations adopt:
A. Quality Improvement Teams or Excellence Teams (QITS)
B. Problem Solving Teams (PST)
C. Natural Work Teams (NWT) THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK : 15 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK A. Quality Improvement Teams or
Excellence Teams (QITS) –
These are temporary teams with the
purpose of dealing with specific
problems that often re-occur.
These teams are set up for period of
three to twelve months. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK : 16 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK B. Problem Solving Teams (PST) –
These are temporary teams to
solve certain problems and also to
identify and overcome causes of
They generally last from one week
to three months. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK : 17 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.5.- TEAMWORK C. Natural Work Teams (NWT) –
These teams consist of small groups of
skilled workers who share tasks and
These teams use concepts such as
employee involvement teams, self-
managing teams and quality circles.
These teams generally work for one to two
hours a week. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.6.- LEADERSHIP : 18 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.6.- LEADERSHIP It is possibly the most important element in TQM.
It appears everywhere in an organization.
Leadership in TQM requires the
manager to provide an inspiring vision,
make strategic directions that are
understood by all and to instill values
that guide subordinates. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.6.- LEADERSHIP : 19 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.6.- LEADERSHIP For TQM to be successful in the
business, the supervisor must be
committed in leading his employees.
A supervisor must understand TQM,
believe in it and then demonstrate their
belief and commitment through their
daily practices of TQM. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.III.- BINDING MORTAR : 20 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.III.- BINDING MORTAR 7. Communication – It binds everything together.
Starting from foundation to roof of the TQM
house, everything is bound by strong mortar of communication.
It acts as a vital link between all elements of TQM.
Communication means a common understanding of ideas between the sender and the receiver. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION : 21 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION The success of TQM demands
communication with and among all the
organization members, suppliers and
Supervisors must keep open airways where
employees can send and receive information
about the TQM process. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION : 22 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION There are different ways of communication such as:A. Downward communication –
This is the dominant form of communication
in an organization.
Presentations and discussions basically do it.
By this the supervisors are able to make the
employees clear about TQM. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION : 23 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION B. Upward communication
By this the lower level of employees are able to provide suggestions to upper management of the affects of TQM.
As employees provide insight and constructive criticism, supervisors must listen effectively to correct the situation that comes about through the use of TQM.
This forms a level of trust between supervisors and employees. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION : 24 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.7.- COMMUNICATION C. Sideways communication
This type of communication is important
because it breaks down barriers between
It also allows dealing with customers and
suppliers in a more professional manner. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.IV. ROOF : 25 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.IV. ROOF 8. Recognition is the last and final
element in the entire system.
It should be provided for both
suggestions and achievements for teams
as well as individuals.
Employees strive to receive recognition
for themselves and their teams. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.8.- RECOGNITION : 26 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.8.- RECOGNITION Detecting and recognizing contributors is the most important job of a supervisor.
As people are recognized, there can be
huge changes in self-esteem, productivity,
quality and the amount of effort exhorted to
the task at hand.
Recognition comes in its best form when it
is immediately following an action that an
employee has performed. THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.8.- RECOGNITION : 27 THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF T. Q. M.8.- RECOGNITION Recognition comes in different ways, places and time such as,
Ways - It can be by way of personal letter
from top management.
Also by award banquets, plaques, trophies etc.
Places - Good performers can be recognized
in front of departments, on performance
boards and also in front of top management.
Time - Recognition can given at any time like
in staff meeting, annual award banquets, etc. Slide 28: 28 35 Conclusion We can conclude that these eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization and that the supervisor is a huge part in developing these elements in the work place. Without these elements, the business entities cannot be successful TQM implementers. It is very clear from the above discussion that TQM without involving integrity, ethics and trust would be a great remiss, in fact it would be incomplete.
Training is the key by which the organization creates a TQM environment.
Leadership and teamwork go hand in hand. Conclusion : 29 Conclusion Lack of COMMUNICATION between departments, supervisors and employees create a burden on the whole TQM process.
Last but not the least, RECOGNITION should be given to people who contributed to the overall completed task.
Hence, lead by example, train employees to
provide a quality product, create an
environment where there is no fear to share
knowledge, and give credit
where credit is due.