Prof. Vibhuti Patel on SDG 5: Gender Equality & Empowerment of Women

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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs-2015-2030) are a derivative of the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015), which spells out the following values: freedom, equity, equality, human rights, solidarity, peace, security, tolerance, respect for nature, and shared responsibility. They are a clarion call of 189 governments, on behalf of their citizens, to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently subjected (Patel, V and Karne, M, 2007). The SDGs are benchmarks of development progress based on such fundamental values as freedom, equity and human rights and peace and security. SDGs can be achieved if all actors work together- heads of the nation states, civil society organizations, international financial institutions, global trade bodies and the UN system- and do their part. Poor countries have pledged to govern better, and invest in their people through health care and education. Rich countries must stick to their pledge to support the poor countries through aid, debt relief, and fairer and just trade. Only if there is commitment on the part of the rich as well as poor countries to fulfil these promises all the SDGs could be achieved and distributive justice, gender justice and social justice can be achieved.

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Vol.10 No.3 July - September 2017 Private Circulation Only

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Regional Centre for Urban Environmental Studies RCUES Mumbai Fully supported by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India Established in 1926 the All India Institute of Local Self Government AIILSG India is a premier autonomous research and training institution in India. The Institute was recognized as an Educational Institution by Government of Maharashtra in the year 1971. The Institute offers several regular training courses in urban development management and municipal administration which are recognized by the Government of India and several State Governments in India. In the year 1968 the erstwhile Ministry of Urban Development and now known as Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India established the Regional Centre for Urban Environmental Studies RCUES at AIILSG Mumbai to undertake urban policy research technical advisory services and building work capabilities of senior and middle level municipal officials and elected members from the States of Goa Gujarat Maharashtra Rajasthan and UTs of Diu Daman Dadra Nagar Haveli in western region and Assam and Tripura States in North East Region. The RCUES is fully supported by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India has formed National Review and Monitoring Committee for RCUES under the chairmanship of the Secretary Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India. The Principal Secretary Urban Development Department of Government of Maharashtra is the ex-officio Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the RCUES Mumbai which is constituted by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India. In the year 1991 the RCUES was recognized by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India as a National Training Institute NTI to undertake capacity building of project functionary municipal officials and municipal elected members under the earlier urban poverty alleviation programme-UBSP. In the year 1997 the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment recognized RCUES of AIILSG as a NTI for capacity building under SJSRY the centrally sponsored poverty alleviation programme in the States and UTs in the western region Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. In 2005 the Ministry of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation MOUEPA Government of India and UNDP have set up the `National Resource Centre on Urban Poverty NRCUP which is anchored by Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies RCUES All India Institute of Local Self Government AIILSG Mumbai under GOI – UNDP project titled `National Strategy for the Urban Poor. In 2009 the RCUES AIILSG Mumbai was recognized as a `Nodal Resource Centre on SJSRY NRCS by Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India. Since 2000 the AIILSG Mumbai houses the Solid Waste Management SWM Cell backed by the Government of Maharashtra for capacity building of municipal bodies and provide technical advisory services to ULBs in the State. In 2008 Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority MMRDA established Solid Waste Management Cell to provide technical advise for development of regional landfill sites and capacity enhancement in Solid Waste Management for urban local bodies in Mumbai Metropolitan Region MMR. On 13th January 2010 Water Supply Sanitation Department Government of Maharashtra established Change Management Unit CMU in AIILSG Mumbai which was supported by Government of Maharashtra. The CMU was anchored by AIILSG Mumbai for Water Supply and Sanitation Department Government of Maharashtra from 13th January 2010 to 30th June 2014. In 2010 the AIILSG Mumbai is selected as a Nodal Agency by Water Supply and Sanitation Department Government of Maharashtra in preparation of City Sanitation Plans for 19 Municipal Corporations and 15 A Class Municipal Councils in Maharashtra State under the assistance of Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India. On 3rd September 2011 Water Supply Sanitation Department Government of Maharashtra established Waste Management Research Centre in AIILSG Mumbai which will be supported by Government of Maharashtra and MMRDA. The RCUES AIILSG Mumbai is recognized in October 2011 as a Nodal Resource Centre NRC for RAY by Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India. The AIILSG Mumbai is empanelled in November 2011 as National Resource Institution for North East West and South Regions for `Social Development Community Mobilization by RAY Directorate Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India. In August 2013 the AIILSG Mumbai is empanelled as Agency by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India for providing technical support to the Cities / Towns of States / Urban Local Bodies ULBs in the field of Water Supply and Sanitation Sewerage and Drainage systems. In July 2015 the RCUES AIILSG Mumbai is empanelled for Municipal Solid Waste Management project under Swachh Bharat Mission SBM programmes undertaken by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India.

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Mr . Ranjit S. Chavan President AIILSG Editorial Board- Editor-in-Chief Ashish Deosthali Director General AIILSG Editor Ms. Utkarsha Kavadi Director RCUES of AIILSG Mumbai Editorial Board Members w Dr. Snehalata Deshmukh Former Vice-Chancellor University of Mumbai Mumbai. w Dr. Joop W. de wit Senior Lecturer Institute of Social Studies the Hague the Netherlands. w Mr . Ajitkumar Jain IAS Retd Information Commissioner State Government of Maharashtra Mumbai. w Mrs. Manisha Mhaiskar IAS Principal Secretary Urban Development Government of Maharashtra Ex-officio Chairman RCUES Advisory Committee. w Dr. Dinesh Mehta Professor Emeritus CEPT University Ahmedabad. w Dr. Vibhuti Patel Professor Advanced Centre for Women’s Studies School of Development Studies Tata Institute of Social Science Mumbai. w Dr. Vandana Desai Senior Lecturer in Development Studies and Director MA/Msc Development and Environment Department of Geography Royal Holloway University of London U.K. w Mr . V . Vijaykumar Sr. Advisor AIILSG Pune.

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The Urban World - Quarterly Publication of Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies of All India Institute of Local Self Government Mumbai July - September 2017 For Contact Ms. Utkarsha Kavadi Director Regional Centre for Urban Environmental Studies of All India Institute of Local Self-Government M. N. Roy Human Development Campus Plot No.6 ‘F’ Block Opp. Government Colony Bldg. No. 326 TPS Road No.12 BKC Bandra East Mumbai - 400 051 India Tel : 0091-22-26571713 / 2657 17 14 / 61805600 Fax : 0091-22-2657 39 73 Email : rcuesdirectorgmail.com / utkarshakavadiyahoo.com Published by - Shri Ashish Deosthali Director-General All India Institute of Local Self-Government M. N. Roy Human Development Campus Plot No.6 ‘F’ Block Opp. Government Colony Bldg. No. 326 TPS Road No.12 BKC Bandra East Mumbai - 400 051 India Tel : 0091-22-2657 17 13 / 2657 17 14 Fax : 0091-22-2657 21 15 Email : dgaiilsg.org Website : www.aiilsg.org The opinions expressed in the articles / presentations herein are those of the authors. They do not reflect the opinions of the Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies All India Institute of Local Self Government Mumbai Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India or Publisher. Printed at Copytronics Bandra E Mumbai.

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l Editorial l The Sustainable Development Goals SDGs 5: Achieve Gender Equality and Empower all Women and Girls 1-7 Dr. Vibhuti Patel Professor Advanced Centre for Womens Studies School of Development Studies Tata Institute of Social Sciences Mumbai. l Industrialisation Displacement and Marginalisation of Weaker Section 8-18 Empirical Evidences from ‘Hajira’ a Fringe Village of Surat City of South Gujarat Ankit Patel Assistant Professor Saraswati College of Social Work Moriyana Gujarat l New Additions to the Legal Framework of Waste Management 19-22 Fazalahmed B. Khan Advisor Urban Legal Services All India Institute of Local Self-Government. The Urban World Quarterly Publication of the Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies of All India Institute of Local Self-Government Mumbai V olume - 10 No. - 3 July - September 2017 Contents

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RCUES Key Publications 1. Urban Development. 2. Urban Planning. 3. Solid Waste Management - Resource Material. 4. Hospital Medical Waste Management. 5. Planning for Urban Informal Sector in Highly Dense Cities. 6. Study of Municipal Schools with Special Focus on Drop-outs Standard of Education and Remedies. 7. Rainwater Harvesting. 8. Institutionalisation of Citizen’s Participation in Urban Governance. 9. Gender Budgeting. 10. Gender Equality in Local Government - Comparative Study of Four States in Western Region in India. 11. Mapping of Basic Services in Urban Slums. 12. Basic Services to the Urban Poor. 13. Health. 14. Security of Tenure. 15. Resettlement and Rehabilitation. 16. Mumbai Human Development Report 2009. UNDP / MOH UPA GOI / MCGM. 17. Resource Material on Urban Poverty Alleviation. 18. Laws of Meetings. 19. Resource Material on Preparation of City Sanitation Plan CSP Capacity Building for Urban Local Bodies. 20. Implementation of 74th CAA 1992 in Urban Local Bodies and Impact Assessment of Training of Women Elected Members. For Contact Ms. Utkarsha Kavadi Director Regional Centre for Urban Environmental Studies of All India Institute of Local Self-Government M. N. Roy Human Development Campus Plot No.6 ‘F’ Block Opp. Government Colony Bldg. No. 326 TPS Road No.12 BKC Bandra East Mumbai - 400 051 India Tel : 0091-22-26571713 / 2657 17 14 / 61805600 Fax : 0091-22-2657 39 73 Email : rcuesdirectorgmail.com / utkarshakavadiyahoo.com

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Dont Trash the Future Reuse and Recycle The recent collapse of the landfill site at Ghazipur on the outskirts of Delhi served as a chilling reminder of the severe hazards of solid waste in our cities. While such incidents highlight the issue by grabbing media headlines a very large bulk of the problem manifests itself in the form of a silent killer almost unknowingly causing severe environment degradation through ground water contamination and vicious air pollution. This neither grabs headlines nor engages the community in public debates and is therefore all the more dangerous. Delhi reportedly generates about 10000 tonnes of municipal waste each day. Among the highest per capita anywhere in the world. As per World Banks report What a Waste the South Asia region generates on average just 0.45 kg/capita/day against 2.2 Kg for OECD countries. Delhi alarmingly is over ten times the average for South Asia. Waste management in cities is a multi-dimensional issue and calls for action on several fronts in order to prevent it from becoming a greater hazard than what it already is. At the heart of the problem is the changing lifestyles and move towards greater convenience and comfort which promotes use-and-throw behaviour as against the traditional and more sustainable option of reduce reuse recycle. Recognizing the potential hazards of municipal waste several legislative measures have been mandated in terms of waste collection and disposal. But as the Ghazipur incident reveals compliance is more modest than robust. The Ghazipur site for example had reportedly reached its capacity way back in 2002 but dumping continued. Several alternative technology options will emerge. In some developed countries for example incineration is used. However this comes with significantly higher investments and operating costs. Then there is need for a robust compliance mechanism to ensure safe disposal of ash and proper handling of flue gases and reclaiming possible heavy metal discharge. In addition there are still concerns of environmental and health impacts of incineration. Therefore this technology may not yet be available for widespread safe use. In the meanwhile we need to pursue currently available environment friendly options including anaerobic digestion and composting. This calls for dedicated source segregation of waste something in which we have had limited success though some bright spots exist in a few towns and cities. While the above disposal efficiencies will only bring about incremental relief breakthroughs can come with dramatic changes in the way products are designed manufactured packed and used-and of course reused. Laws in this area are limited. For example use of certain kinds of plastic bags is banned in many cities/states though with limited success. There needs to be larger effort to regulate activities in this area. Manufacturers need to be mandated to design products Editorial

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and package them in environment friendly ways-ideally suitable for reuse. Eateries could serve in reusable rather than throw away paper plates. Appliance makers/resellers must be made responsible to take back and arrange to recycle packaging-cardboard corrugated sheets and plastic. Large retailers superstores etc. could provide large collection bins/silos near the store where people could deposit packaging like cardboard plastic and others. These locations could become spots for recyclers to access material for recycling-material which would otherwise end up in landfills. In India there is a history and tradition of reuse and recycle. But we need an organized program which will work to reducing waste and recovering value. This needs to be instilled as a virtue through widespread awareness campaigns by urban local bodies and be mandated by law where required. ULBs can also help develop and encourage the recycling ecosystem with technology and other inputs. We need to do all this and more or else we will soon need another planet just to dump our waste. In this issue of Urban World we carry a paper on recent changes in the legal framework of waste management. Editorial

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The Sustainable Development Goals SDGs 5: Achieve Gender Equality and Empower all Women and Girls Dr. Vibhuti Patel Professor Advanced Centre for Womens Studies School of Development Studies Tata Institute of Social Sciences Mumbai. The Sustainable Development Goals SDGs- 2015-2030 are a derivative of the Millennium Development Goals 2000-2015 which spells out the following values: freedom equality solidarity tolerance respect for nature and shared responsibility. They are a clarion call of 189 governments on behalf of their citizens to free our fellow men women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty to which more than a billion of them are currently subjected. The SDGs are benchmarks of development progress based on such fundamental values as freedom equity and human rights and peace and security. SDGs can be achieved if all actors work together- heads of the nation states civil society organizations international financial institutions global trade bodies and the UN system and do their part. Poor countries have pledged to govern better and invest in their people through health care and education. Rich countries must stick to their pledge to support the poor countries through aid debt relief and fairer and just trade. Only if there is commitment on the part of the rich as well as poor countries to fulfil these promises all the SDGs could be achieved and distributive justice gender justice and social justice can be achieved. Gender concerns in SDGs: As per World Economic Forum India stands at a 114 amongst 142 countries in terms of Gender Gap Index. All goals are expected to mainstream SDG 5 that aims to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. All 17 SDGs and 169 Targets are mandated a special focus on gender and challenges discrimination against women by focusing on school education ensuring that more women become literate guaranteeing more voice and representation in public policy and decision making-political participation providing improved job prospects- 36 Work Participation Rate food and nutrition security support to women farmers. Indian Women and SDGs The SDGs explicitly acknowledge that gender -- what a given society believes about the appropriate roles and activities of men and women and the behaviours that result from these beliefs -- can have a major impact on development helping to promote it in some cases while seriously retarding it in others. SDG 5 out of 8 is calling for an end to disparities between boys and girls at all levels of education. There is general agreement that education is vital to development and ensuring that girls as well as boys have full opportunities for schooling will help improve lives in countless ways. Child Sex Ratio: Mid-decade census has revealed further decline in the child sex ratio in several parts of India. In the urban centers deficit of girls has been enhancing due to pre-birth elimination. In spite of demand of QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3 1

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womens groups and recommendation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan to revisit the two child norm laws several state governments continue to victimize the victim namely poor dalit tribal and Muslim women and unborn girls as the norm has resulted into intensified sex selective abortions. Reproductive and Child Health: Evaluation of Chiranjivi Scheme to halt maternal mortality has revealed that the public private partnership in this scheme allows private practitioners milk tax payers money without giving necessary relief to pregnant woman. Only in cases of normal delivery the private practitioner admit women for delivery and in case of complicated delivery the concerned women are sent to over- crowed public hospital. In NRHM ASHA are not paid even minimum wages and are paid “honorarium”. Smart Cities: The Union Budget 2017-18 has given priority to formation of 100 smart cities in terms of high allocation for physical infrastructure IT based and cyber technology based governance. Smart cities have to be Safe cities. Town planners policy makers and budget experts need to do gender budgeting to ensure women-friendly civic infrastructure- water sanitation health care safe transport public toilets help lines skill development for crisis management and safety at work place. While making budgets for social defense services consideration must be given to safety of girls and women in schools and colleges in terms of prevention of child sexual abuse through public education and counseling facilities separate toilets for girls and boys in schools legal literacy on POCSO Act 2012 and Prevention of Sexual Harassment Workplace Act 2013. Provision must be made to have special cells in the police department to take action against display of pornographic images SMS messages cybercrimes that victimize young girls at public places or in public transport- buses local trains rickshaws and taxis. There is need to integrate safety of women as a major concern in flagship centrally sponsored schemes such as Jawahar Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission JNNURM PMSSY NUHM are supposed to have 30 of funds as Womens Component. Predicament of Women Farmers Women farmers and cultivators are the backbone of agricultural production in India. Majority of agricultural labourers are women. In agricultural sector also the allocation at Rs. 20400 crores is lower as compared to the 2014-15 in which the allocation was Rs. 22309 crores. The current budget makes a non-plan allocation of Rs.15000 crores to the Ministry of Agriculture to transfer funds to compensate commercial banks for providing subsidised credit to agriculture. The budget permits 100 per cent FDI in rural markets. Entry of corporate sector into agrarian marketing has already made condition of farmers precarious as a result of their monopsonistic control where large number of poor sellers face handful of buyers. Desperate farmers will have to distress selling of their products to the multinational corporations. Several states in our country are facing severe drought resulting into agrarian unemployment. In this context increase of MGNREGA allocation by 7.7 is highly inadequate. The government of India should initiate Mahila Haats at block level in rural areas so that women farmers can directly sell their products to buyers. Violence against Women and Girls At the country level most initiatives to address violence have been legislative. Although the legislation varies it typically includes a combination of protective or restraining orders and penalties for offenders. As with property rights a formidable challenge are often the enforcement of existing laws. Procedural barriers and traditional attitudes of law enforcement and judicial officials undermine the effectiveness of existing anti- violence laws. Training programs for judicial and 2

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law enforcement personnel often go a long way to change such attitudes. Beyond training programs the establishment of female-staffed police stations has been effective in making them more accessible to women. For the women who have experienced violence a range of medical psychological legal educational and other support services is necessary. To prevent violence improving womens education levels and economic opportunities has been found to be a protective factor. The interventions noted above to improve womens economic opportunities thus become even more important. Ultimately however the threshold of acceptability of violence against women needs to be shifted upwards. To do that requires a massive media and public education campaign. National Mission for Empowerment of Women NMEW: The Gender Budget Statement has increased NMEWs allocation to 50 crores which is double as compared to previous year. The budget has not taken serious consideration with respect to violence against women that has escalated many fold. While schemes to combat trafficking and empowering adolescent girls have received increased funds the schemes meant for implementation of PCPNDT act the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act have not received much allocation. Corpus of Rs. 3000 crores under Nirbhaya Fund has largely remained unutilized. On March 8 2016 the Union Budget 2015-16 had allocated Rs. 653 for Scheme for Safety of Women in Public Road Transport with an objective to ensure safety of women and girl child in public transport by monitoring location of public road transport vehicles to provide immediate assistance in minimum response time to the victims in distress. The proposed scheme under the “Nirbhaya Fund” envisages setting up of a National Emergency Response System with a control room under the overall control of Ministry of Home Affairs which will receive alerts from distressed women and take 3 action on it. Under the scheme for giving grants to States for setting up driving schools preference is given to proposals for driving school for women. Similarly Beti Padhao Beti Bachao scheme was announced with the goal of improving efficiency in delivery services for women. Proposal submitted by different ministries local self-government bodies and state governments under these schemes are gathering dust and funds have remained largely unutilized. Water The audit report of Comptroller and Auditor General of India CAG on Accelerated Rural Water Supply ARWS has made a shocking revelation that despite recurrent bouts of water borne diseases across the country all states are ignoring drinking water quality. Most of the State governments did not conduct water quality tests during 2008-09. Poor urban rural tribal womens major survival struggle revolves around safe drinking water. Leaving supply of safe drinking water to private players has enhanced hardship of common women. Budgetary Allocation for Water Supply Sanitation that affects womens life greatly as consumers and unpaid and partially paid-workers does not mention facilities for women. This has perpetuated unproductive female workload of fetching water from long distance avers Indira Rajaram. She demands “water-sheds in the country need to be contoured on the Geographical Information systems GIS platform. Using space technology for mapping of aquifers a five year plan needs to be drawn up for creating sustainable water sources within reasonable reach of rural habitation.” Rajaram 2007. Energy Expenditure of Women Reproductive work and domestic duties demand major time and energy of women. In the rural and tribal areas collection of fuel fodder water looking after the livestock kitchen gardening demand great deal of time and energy QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3

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4 from women and girls. The 11th Plan document has acknowledged the fact but in reality nothing significant is done in terms of priority given to alternative to bio-fuels that causes smoke related illnesses availability of safe drinking water child care facilities and adequate public transport for women that would reduce their drudgery. Social Security for Women in Informal Sector: Unorganised Workers Social Security Act 2008 has hardly made any difference in the lives of millions of poor women in the unorganized sector due to non-implementation of the Act. In the labour market bizarre scenario is created where girl children are trafficked for sex trade domestic work and slave labour is employed in occupationally hazardous condition sexploitation has become the norm in the informal labour markets domestic work/ servitude go unchallenged young women workers in Special Economic Zone are hired and fired as per the whims of employers and are paid miserable wages. Ninety percent of women are not getting the benefits of maternity benefits. Design of Maternity Benefit Scheme must be critically examined and specific details should be provided for its judicious implementation and concerned officers who are guilty of non-performance must be made accountable and punished. Elderly Women Half Way homes and Elderly Womens Homes must be provided in every district. Pension Scheme for old disabled women is implemented only in 4 or 5 states such as Kerala Gujarat Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Panchayati Raj Institutions PRIs must be motivated to provide an extensive data base on 60 + women in their areas. For widows or elderly women creation of community-based half way homes fully equipped with counseling facilities temporary shelter get-to-gather drop-in-centre skill building/ up gradation and technical training is far more humane way of providing social security rather than doling out money that gets snatched from them by the bullies or wicked relatives. NREGA Trade unions and womens rights organisations from M.P. Punjab and Bihar have repeatedly conveyed that even under NREGA pay disparities are reported by women. Though NREGA provided job to 5629822 women in 2007-08 GOI 2009 they are assigned the most unskilled and low paying tasks. Development economists and feminists have demanded that NREGA be turned into an Earn- While-You-Learn plan through Public Private Partnership PPP model that creates an on the job training module aimed at up gradation of skills of women working at the sites. National Skill Development Mission NSDM plans to add 1 crore workers to the non-agricultural sector through skill training. It must respect 30 womens component of the total employment opportunities. Human here Women capital formation is a must for value addition among women employed in NREGA. Central Employment Guarantee Council that is supposed to be an independent watchdog for NREGA must be made accountable for gender sensitive implementation of NREGS. JNNURM V ocational Training for women must be an inbuilt component of JNNRUM. Support services such as crèche working womens hostel schools ICDS centers ITIs must converge to make an effective utilization of infrastructure. SHGs Provision of loans at 4 interest rate is implemented only in A.P. Federations of SHGs for women are pressurising other State governments also to provide loans at differential rate of interest. A feminization of agriculture 71 women workers are in agriculture and women form 39 of total agricultural workers demands women component plan in PRIs. There is an urgent need for a paradigm shift from micro-credit to livelihood finance comprising a comprehensive package of support services including insurance for life

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5 health crops and livestock: infrastructure finance for roads power market telecom etc. and investment in human development agriculture and business development services including productivity enhancement local value addition alternate market linkages etc. and institutional development services forming and strengthening various producers organisations such as SHGs water user associations forest protection committees credit and commodity cooperatives empowering Panchayats through capacity building and knowledge centers etc.. A network of capacity building institutions should be set up to strengthen and develop SHGs to undertake the various functions into which they are expanding including Training of Trainers ToT and to nurture and mentor them during the process. Milk cooperative must be run and managed by women. The local authorities should facilitate meeting of SHGs of women with the bank managers lead bank officers and National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NABARD officers. There should be reservation of 10 of authorized shopping areas for SHGs of women. Womens SHGs with primitive accumulation of capital should charge 2 or below 2 rate of interest. The SHGs that manage to acquire Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana SGSY loans should reduce the rate of interest to 1.5. Female headed households single divorced deserted and widows should get special consideration while granting loans. Womens Component Plan WCP Gender audit of Scheduled Caste Plan SCP Tribal Sub Plan TSP and financial allocation of Ministry of Minority Affairs is urgently required. So far only proclamations are made by the state governments but except for Kerala none of the States have implemented WCP in all development oriented schemes and programmes. For example in the Union Budget 2009-10 there is Need to Emphasize Womens Component in mega schemes on education health MGNREGS Bharat Nirman AIDS Control Programme Skill Development Fund Animal Husbandry Dairying and Fisheries Programme and funds of Department of Agricultural Research and Education. These development oriented activities where massive financial allocation is made need to specify womens component at least 30 of the total budgetary allocation within the overall financial provision. Reservation of seats for girls must be ensured for Skill Development institutes and Model Schools for which sizable allocation is made in the budget. Womens Rights Education No efforts are made by the State or professional bodies for employers education about basic human rights of women workers. Supreme Court directive as per Vishakha Judgment concerning safety of women at workplace is still not implemented by most of the private sector employers and media barons. Utilisation of Financial Allocation for Pro Women Schemes Only 3-4 states are taking advantage of financial allocation for Swadhar working womens hostel short stay homes for women in difficult circumstances and UJJAWALA: A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of trafficking and Rescue Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation. What are the bottlenecks Implementation of crèche scheme is far from satisfactory. It is encouraging to note that the proposal to reserve 50 seats for women in PRIs was cleared by the cabinet on 27-8-09. But Fund flow to PRIs has not been streamlined even after separate budgetary allocation for PRIs made in the current budget. How many states have provided womens component in Panchayat funds Is it utilized judiciously for womens practical and strategic needs All State governments must be made to work towards fulfillment of longstanding demands of the womens groups that provisions be made in the composite programmes under education health QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3

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6 and rural development sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principal beneficiaries and disaggregated within the total allocation and restrictions are placed on their re- appropriation for other purposes. Road and Rail Transport for Women: India is undergoing U-shape phenomenon so far as womens work participation is concerned Sudarshan and Bhattacharya 2009. There has been continuous increase in the work participation of women in the Indian economy. Most of the working women in urban and rural areas travel in overcrowded buses and trains. In the transport sector top priority needs to be given for women special buses and trains in all cities. For women street-vendors seat-less buses and special luggage compartments in trains need to be provided. Implementation of Legislations Promise of the Elevanth Five Year Plan EFYP to allocate funds for Implementation of PCPNDT ACT 2002 and Domestic Violence DV Act has remained unfulfilled in most of the states and marginally fulfilled in some states such as A.P. Kerala Karnataka and Tamilnadu. No progress is made in providing audit of land and housing rights of women by any ministry- Urban Development Rural Development Tribal Development Panchayati Raj institutions PRIs and Urban Local Self Government bodies. Minority Women After consistent highlighting of the findings of Rajendra Sachar Committee Report 2007 on deplorable socio-economic status of majority of Muslims in India special budgetary allocation for socially excluded minority communities is made. In sub-plan for minorities where allocation of Rs. 513 crore is made in Budget Estimates no specific allocations are made for minority women and women headed households by Ministry of Minority Affairs. Inadequate allocation for crucial schemes affecting survival struggles of women such as Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for Children of Working Mothers Rs. 56.50 crore Working Womens Hostel Rs. 5 crore Swadhar Rs. 15 crore Rescue of victims of trafficking Rs. 10 crore Conditional cash transfer for Girl child for the 1sttime introduced and allocation of Rs. 15 crore made need to be corrected. SDG 5 must direct efforts of the state and non- state actors to provide structures mechanisms funds and functionaries so that Indian women are ensured. • Working womens hostels night shelters for homeless women crèches cheap eating facilities public toilets • Women friendly and SAFE public transport- local trains Metro buses • Housing- Subsidized housing for single/ deserted/ divorced/ widowed women • Nutrition- Strengthening PDS and nutritional mid-day meals • Health- Abolition of user fees for BPL population one stop crisis centre in public hospital for women/girls survivors of violence linked with shelter homes • Skill training centres for women and tailor made courses • Safe efficient and cheap public Transport-bus train metro • Water- Safe drinking water in the community centres • Waste Management- Technological upgradation- Occupational health safety of recycling workers/rag pickers • Proper electrification in the communities • Multipurpose Community centres half way homes for elderly and mentally disturbed women Conclusion Overall the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAW

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provides a useful international mechanism to hold countries accountable for meeting SDG 5. The SDG campaign offers an opportunity to attend to the unfinished business of development by fulfilling the promises made by world leaders to reduce poverty end hunger improve health and eliminate illiteracy. Gender inequality fuels many of these ubiquitous challenges and is exacerbated by them. Conversely gender equality and the empowerment of women can secure the future of women themselves their households and the communities in which they live. Reference: 1. CBGA 2009 The Economic Crisis from a Feminist Perspective” Delhi: Budget Track A Publication by Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability Vol. 6 Track 2 3 April. 2. Chakraborty Lekha 2008 “Invisibility of Womens work in Budgeting” Delhi: Labour File Vol. 6 Nos-2 3 March-June pp. 15-18. 3. Hiraway Indira 2009 “Understanding Poverty: Insights Emerging from the Time Use of the Poor” in Unpaid Work and the Economy: Gender Time Use and Poverty in the Global South edited by Rania Antonopoulos and Indira Hiraway U.K.: Palgrave Publishers. 4. Labour File 2010 In Defense of the Rights of Domestic Workers A bi-monthly Journal of Labour and Economic Affairs Vol. 8 No. 1-3 January-June 5. Mishra Yamini and Bhumika Jhamb 2009 “An Assessment of UP A-I through a Gender Budgeting Lens” Mumbai: Economic and Political Weekly Vol. XLIV No. 35 pp. 61-68. 6. Patel Vibhuti 2009 http://www.gender- budgets.org/content/view/292/156/United Nations Development Fund for Women UNIFEM and The Commonwealth Secretariat. 7. Patel Vibhuti ed. 2010 Girls and girlhoods at the Threshold o Youth and Gender The Women Press B. R. Publications Delhi. 8. Shiva Vandana. Earth Democracy: Justice Sustainability and Peace. London: South End Press 2005. 7 QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3

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Industrialisation Displacement and Marginalisation of Weaker Section Ankit Patel Assistant Professor Saraswati College of Social Work Moriyana Gujarat. Abstract This article argues that in absence of proper i ii development induced Displacement Resettlement and RehabilitationRRPolicy/Program virtually turns into marginalization the condition of weaker section of the rural society. This is what brought out in this article by taking the case of Hajira village a fringe village of Surat city in south Gujarat where large scale industrial development has been taken place in post 1980s. It is observed that the farmers especially small marginal and the other agriculture dependents such as agricultural labourers animal rears share-croppers artisan group etc. lost their traditional means of livelihood due to acquisition of land of both types privately and commonly owned. The present article written on the basis of the authors M. Phil. dissertation 2012a that was completed in 2012. Total 59 i.e.14 sample families comprising various groups such as farmers of all types rich medium and marginal animal rears agricultural labourers fish workers scrap accumulators were selected proportionately by using scientific sample method. INTRODUCTION India initiated the new economic reforms in post 1980s. The contribution of manufacturing sector is comparatively less than the service sector in the Indian economy. According to Gurcharan Das Indias manufacturing share in Gross Domestic Product 16 percent is so low- roughly half of other emerging economy that India still has great potential to shift sizable labour from farms to small low- tech factories. Times of India March 22 2015.Das was also of the opinion that because of rigid labour laws informal jobs was greater. In order to make progress it has been realised that increase in the manufacturing sector felt essential. India introduced the New Economic Policy in post 1980s which gives more leverages to the private players and corporate sector to come and in vestto make in India. The liberalisation of the present land acquisition bill 2015was a step in this direction. The present government in power trying to remove all the obstacles such for speedy and easy land acquisition for promotion of industrialisation. Generally it is believed that industrialisation raises per capita income that subsequently percolate at the bottom and thereby it reduces poverty and also generate more employment which agriculture has its limit. But what happened in the real situation where industrialisation has taken place to the large extent Whether the economic condition of the affected people particularly vulnerable section of the rural society changed affirmatively Whether rural poor able to take benefits of it Whether the industries do take care of the affected population as a part of Corporate Social Responsibility CSR These are some of the questions that the author has tried to answer in the present article by taking the case of Hajira a fringe village of Surat city of south Gujarat. Total 59 Sample Families SFs were selected from various socio-economic strata by using the scientific sample selection method. 8 Empirical Evidences from ‘Hajira’ a Fringe village of Surat city of South Gujarat

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Hajira Hub of Large Scale Industries Hajira located in Choriyasi taluka on the west coast of Arabian Sea at the distance of 20 km from the historical Surat city proved ideal industrial location. Surat was considered a major trading centre since the British time. Hajira formed a part of iii Hajira Area Development Authority HADA region where many large scale industries have came up in this area after the discovery of natural gas at Bombay High. Between 1981 to 2001 it has witnessed phenomenal growth in terms of large scale industries such as National Thermal Power Corporation Limited Larsen and Toubro Reliance Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Indian Oil Corporation Liquid Petroleum Gas Terminal KRIBHCO ESSAR Steel and Power and Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation etc. Two Special Economic Zones SEZ namely ESSAR Power SEZ for Gems Jewelry and ESSAR Hajira SEZ have started working in the HADA region. It represents nearly a third of the industrial investment in Gujarat and a tenth of its economic output. It is estimated that total capital investment of over Rs. 500000 million of investment by 2025. The large scale industrialisation has also resulted in acquisition of land in a big way. Lobo Lancy and Shahikumar 2009 noted that total 5267 hectares of land of 18 villages of HADA which includes village Hajira acquired for the industries. Weaker Section in Hajira In the definition of weaker section the author has included to those families who were socially educationally economically and politically remained backward compared to the other sections of the rural society. It was observed that like other industrial projects majority of the affected population in Hajira belongs to weaker section of the society. The weaker section generally consists of those populations which lacks land resources and suffers from deprivation of different kinds including unemployment illiteracy and ill health. The deprivation was more pronounced in the case of weaker sections such as marginal farmer agriculture labourers fishermen and women. In the above context in Hajira the author included mainly of the socially and educationally backward castes SEBC identified by the Baxi commission appointed by the state government in 1972 Other Backward Castes OBCs as per the Mandal Commission appointed by Central Government in 1980 and the Scheduled Tribes ST categories. Table 1 indicates that SFs of Hajira village belong to Koli community 61 percent followed by the Machhis 23 percent Ahir 4 percent Halpati 8 percent and the rest were others. Koli Patel Machhis and Ahir caste belongs to Baxi Punch.Majority of the SFs having education th th between 8 to 12 standard. 63 percent SFs earn less than rupees 10000 per year. Around 63 SFs has only one earning member in family. The village census carried out by the author shows that of total 4274 respondent have not responded hence excluded families of Hajira as many as 77 percentage families were found landless. Those who own land 17 percent families owned land between 1 to 3 acres of land. Only around 6 percent families owned land more than 3 to 7 acres of land. The land owned pattern also suggests that majority of them were marginal farmers and majority of them were poor. Composition of Workers in Hajira It is evident from 2001 Census data that majority of the workers 88 percent Out of total 1767 workers listed as main workers whereas only 12 percent marginal workers in Hajira. Very less numbers of percentages were found in primary occupation as the cultivators and the agricultural labourers 5 percent and are 13 percent respectively. The majority 82 percent of the workers were found as Other workers such as government servants municipal employees teachers factory workers plantation workers QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3 9

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10 Table 1: Social Profile of SFs of Hajira Particular Category Numbers Percentage Size no. of membersof the family Less than 3 12 20.3 4 to 6 30 50.8 7 to 10 11 18.6 More than 10 6 10.2 N 59 100 Caste Groups Koli Patel 41 69.5 Ahir 2 3.4 Macchi/ Khalasi 10 16.9 Halpati 6 10.2 N 59 100 Caste Category ST 6 10.2 SC 0 0 OBCs 53 89.8 N 59 100 Education of the respondent Illiterate 11 18.6 th Up to 7 standard 13 22.0 th th 8 to 12 standard 32 54.2 th More than 12 standard 3 5.1 N 59 100 Highest Education of SFs in Hajira Illiterate 0 0 th Up to 7 standard 4 6.8 th th 8 to 10 standard 27 45.8 th th 10 to 12 standard 14 23.7 Graduate 7 11.9 Post-graduate 1 1.7 Other 6 10.2 N 59 100 Family income In Rs. of SFs Less than 10000 37 62.7 in Hajira 10001 to 25000 18 30.5 25001 to 50000 2 3.4 50001 to 1.5 lakh 2 3.4 More than 1.5 lakh 0 0 N 59 100 Earning member in the family One 37 62.7 Two 11 18.6 More than two 11 18.6 N 59 100 It includes ITI PTC Technicians and Diploma holders.

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those engaged in trade commerce business transport banking mining construction political or social work priest entertainments artists etc. Majority 73 percent of the marginal workers engaged as agriculture labourers. Similar trend was iv found by the author in the survey . It is evident from the data that the casualisation of economic activities has increased in the village. INDUSTRIALISATION: ITS IMPACT ON WEAKER SECTION The author found that the condition of farmers and inter-connected groups such as share-croppers landless labourers animal rears etc. has deteriorated significantly in Hajira. Landless has increased It is found that Out of total 40 land owning SFs 85 percent 34 SFs lost their revenue land. Out of the total families who lost their land 53 percent have become completely landless whereas 47 percent have either turned small or the marginal farmers as they have lost partial land. Majority of the farmers have lost land between 1 to 6 acres. As mentioned above total 5267 hectares of land of v 18 villages were taken for industrial purposes . Due to acquisition of the land not only the farmers but also inter-connected groups such as share- croppers landless labourers animal husbandry fishermen etc. affected directly or indirectly manner. Usually the industries offer Cash for land. The assumption behind this was that with cash the affected family will purchase land at elsewhere. In reality only a few families have purchased land. In majority of the cases the farmers who lost their land have spent compensation money in unproductive manner Table 2. Table 2 indicates that majority have used the compensation money by way of fulfillment of social ceremony such as marriage death child birth etc. 50 percent SFs used compensation to construct new house. Only around 10 percent SFs have used their compensation money in purchasing the new land that too partially. QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3 11 Chart 1 : Land lost to Industries by SF of Hajira 85 58.8 26.4 2.9 15 11.8 52.9 47.1 2.9 32.3 50.1 14.7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 No. of SFs Yes No Less than one 1 to 3 3.1 to 6 More than 6 Total Partial Before 1980 1981- 1985 1986- 1995 Post 1995 Year Extent of lost Quantity of land lost In Acer Particulars SFs Land lost

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12 Table 2: Use of Compensation money by the SFs of Hajira Compensation Particulars Numbers Percentage Use of Compensation Purchased land in another area 3 9.4 Built new house 16 50.0 Fulfillment of Social ceremony such as 18 56.2 marriage death child birth etc Started new business 1 3.1 Purchased Two/three/ Four wheeler 4 12.5 Repayment of debt 3 9.4 Any other 12 37.5 N 32 Total 32 SFs have received compensation but they have used it more than one purpose. Hence Multiple Reponses. Other includes Consumption Sickness expenses domestic expenses purchase of house etc.. Loss of Common Property Resources and Reduction of Livestock Apart from private land the village pasture land and land of sea strip forest lands were also acquired by industries and port developments vi project. The absence of grazing land and worsened economic condition has forced many families to sell out their cattle. Chart 2 : Reduction before and after the land lost of Cattle wealth by SFs in Hajira 0 60 100 160 200 260 300 360 400 No. of Livestock After Industrialization Before Industrialization 2 0 0 6 10 56 66 60 162 Calf Pada/Padi Livestock Oxe Buffalo Cow 342

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Chart 2 indicates that the numbers of SFs reporting rearing the live-stock have reduced considerably. The decrease is found in all types of live stocks including Cows Buffalo Ox Calf Goat and Poultry. An old man reported “Earlier the milk was going to Sumul dairy located in Surat city from the village now the milk is coming to village from Sumul dairy thanks to industrialisation”. Supplementary sources of income for the farmers have reduced considerably. This has resulted in reduction of Household HH economic status. Condition of the Agricultural Labourers Worsened Prior to industrialisation agriculture labour work was one of the primary occupations of the people of Hajira particularly of landless Halpatis. All the farmers reveled that they stopped calling agricultural labourers due to the land lost and workdays in agricultural activities have decreased to a large extent Table3. Due to the acquisition of land the labourers have become victims of this development though indirectly. Table 3: Changes Observed by the Agricultural labour in matter related to their work after industrialisation in Hajira Changes Category Response Work days employment Remained same 12.9 Decreased 3497.1 N 35100 Wages Yes 35100 No 0 N 35100 Stop work as Agriculture labour Yes 3394.3 No 23.4 N 35100 Members abandon the work Less than 21545.4 3to 6 1339.3 More than 6 515.1 N 33100 Fishing Activities Lost Out of total 59 SFs 26 SFs 44 percent were engage with fishing before industrialisation in Hajira. Out of 26 SFs 15 SFs 57.7 percent abandoned fishing Table 4. All the 26 SFs who were engaged in fishing have told that the quantity of the fish catch has reduced after industrialisation. Thanks to the pollution by the chemicals dragging/ filling activities and noise pollution in sea. Certain type of fishes such as Ramcha Chiliya Modar Levta Boi Karachla Bumla Gingha Dahangda Palava Poplet Khut Singada Varkhla Gal etc. have become a matter of past. Quantities of fishes have also reduced after the industrialisation. Nearly 87 percent fishermen told that their fishing instruments have become totally redundant. QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3 13

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14 Table 4 : Fishing Activities among the SFs of Hajira Fishing Activity Response Frequency Percentage Sfs engaged with fishing before Yes 26 44.0 industrialisation No 33 56.0 N 59 100 Sfs Abandon fishing Yes 15 57.7 No 11 42.3 N 26 100 Reduction in the quantity of fish catch Yes 26 100.0 Reduce 25-50 2 7.7 Reduce more than 50 24 92.3 N 26 100 Reduction in income from fish sale Yes 26 100.0 Reduce 25-50 2 7.7 Reduce more than 50 24 92.3 N 26 100 Reduction in work days from fish catch Yes 26 100.0 Reduce 25-50 2 7.7 Reduce more than 50 24 92.3 N 26 100 Problems of Gender gets Aggravated Akash 2000 studied women participations in vii income generation in Hajira area. He interviewed 400 HH. Of them he found that women were doing some kind of economic activity in 269 67 percent HHs. In 21 percent HH women were contributing more than 33 percent in the total family income. It is evident from the study that a high proportion of viii women were doing economic activities in the ix Hajira area but it was unreported. 90 percent of the SFs revealed that the problems of women increased after industrialisation. Many have lost their gainful employment and finding difficulties in x getting work in the midst of the industries. They are un-skilled and semi-literate or illiterate hence they are un-able to take the benefits of jobs that have created out of industrialisation. Due to the influx of the migrants in large numbers the women find insecure especially move freely in the evening and also noon time. In absence of gainful employment many women particularly from the lower socio- economic background were forced to adopt scrap collection work which was considered below their dignity. 36 percent SFs of Hajira specifically the women of Halpatis Machhis and few Kolishave taken this job. This activity was found to be xi injurious to the health and proved hazardous for the life in spite they were doing as they do not have any alternatives. Loss of Social Security After industrialisation the people of Hajira particularly poor have lost the social security too. Prior to industrialisation usually the landless labourers and fishermen took advance money from the traders and farmers. Few Kolis cultivators used to engage the Halpatis landless labourers as xii attached labourers. This practice has totally abandoned due to the lost of land in industries. The Halpatis have lost the security of work as well as the

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advance money. Similar was the case of xiii fishermen. This traditional arrangement has dismantled due to the industrialisation. The loss of land has resulted in many social and cultural manifestations for the people of Hajira. The agricultural labourers fisher-folk and the farmers have lost their credit worthiness resulting in serious repercussions. Michael Cerneaconsidered it as the foundation of the whole life of people living in rural areas. It is not just a source of earning but is also a source of prestige power status and recognition which are key factors in the village life. Impoverishment and Marginalization Many of the families of Haplatis and some families of the fishermen and few families of the xiv Kolis were unable even to have two meals a day. Their condition has become pathetic as the creditworthiness has gone. The items like milk vegetables fish edible oil etc. that they were able to consume before the arrival of the industries have gone out of their reach in the post-industrial phase. Theirfamilies suffer from high levels of mal- nutrition. More than a dozen of cases in village HADA area in which men have died at the early age by rendering the family in a destitute condition. It was observed that few local people have developed the state of helplessness in absence of proper redress and grievances mechanism. During the field work the author comes across the people who were in a desperate condition. They could not see any hope against these mighty powers. If any people can make injustice one can approach to the government as the government is ones guardian but when the government itself does injustice to one whom to complain. Reasons for Impoverishment/ Marginalization The main reasons for the devastation of PAFs of Hajira were thatthe industries have initiated some of the programs but they were not found adequate to cater the aspirations and to solve the problems of various strata. Patel Ankit 2014. Many people of Hajira faced displacement forcibly and that too without the adequate support from the industries as well as the government and hence they were forced to resettle of their own. Most of the affected families were unable to regain their earlier economic status that they were enjoying prior to the industrialisation as many of the industries lack proper RR policy and the programs. Industries initiated only ad-hoc programmes without the participation of the people at the grass root level Therefore most of the programmes mostly remained on paper. Even after passing of 20 to 25 years of their displacement many people of Hajira are still struggling hard for accommodating themselves successfully in the new situation. Another reason in majority of the cases it was so happened that the cash compensation proved inadequate to rejuvenate the lost sources of livelihood. All the industries located at Hajira and nearby areas have followed the policy of Cash for xv land and not the Land for Land. 82 percent xvi farmers and only four fishermen of the SFs have received cash compensation. The cash compensation paid to the farmers found extremely low. Due to that many farmers were unable to purchase land elsewhere. `Cash for the Land policy has utterly failed at the grass root level. Similarly the dependent population on agriculture such as agricultural labourers the livestock rears artisans and other occupational categories did not receive single paisa by way of compensation. It has created severe repercussions in the life of the local people. Besides it was found that those who received compensation used money unproductively. Michael Cernea and Hari Mohan Mathur 2008 have observed that the policy of Cash for Land has miserably failed in order to restore the status of livelihood of the affected population at the resettlement site. World Bank document 2004:158 also noted that also noted that compensation for expropriated assets is often not enough to restore livelihood and standard of living QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3 15

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16 especially among poor and vulnerable groups. The activities carried out under the CSRschemes have also utterly failed to cater the problems of local people. The industries had done work related to health education training temporary jobs and contracts but it had not reached to many. The environment and health problem become worrisome. The CSR program is fail to generate new jobs among vulnerable groups. The unemployment in vulnerable section pushed in to marginalize and impoverish condition. Industrialists have tried to keep happy by giving contracts and jobs to affluent section of society. However this technique has not completely stopped the anger of people who are affected most. It was happened due to two reasons one as the programs are not designed in consultation with the local people and second it has not taken into serious consideration of the power structure that operates in the rural society Patel Ankit 2012b. CONCLUDING REMARKS From the above description it can be concluded that the process of development has proved painful particularly for the vulnerable section of the village society. The text of the article shows that the industries in and around Hajira have utterly failed to address concept of social cost and asserting the cost of it. Joseph E. Stiglitz 2001the Nobel Prize winner in Economic Science has concluded that Globalisation has proved detrimental to the poor and other weaker sections of society. Similarly Bhaduri 2005 also found that in India LPG model of development has resulted in widening inequalities between the haves and have-nots. Besides it has accentuated the deprivation particularly of the poor and marginalized sectors of the society. Despite Indias higher economic growth in recent years poverty continues to persist amongst one-third of countrys population. Similar observation madeby Prakash B.A. 2012:579. He mentioned that industrialisation has caused a divide between rich and poor. Of course disintegrate of middle class took place and they too have to spend life under the poverty line. Wealth concentrates in a fewer hands. Undoubtedly development of industrialisation brings increase in production but it has not remained without cost. Industrialisation caused the rise of new classes and result in exploitation testy and inequality. There are very little trickle down effects of the economic growth associated with this model of development. Rajkishor Meher 200925: 457 revealed that the proliferation of mines and mineral-based industries in tribal regions of the country has resulted in the displacement of the indigenous people and also aggravated the poverty further among the indigenous people of the region. Anand Venkatesh and Jain Chandan 2012 also confirm the observation of Hajira that the community members already disadvantaged receive smaller or even negative benefits. The present article also confirms the above facts that industrialisation has resulted in aggravated the problems of the deprived section of the society. The vulnerable section gets further marginalised in absence of proper policy and programs of RR. It has happened so because still the idea of displacement guided by the thought that some individuals have to sacrifice for the larger good. Majority of the industries do not have a policy of RR plan. In such condition the weaker section pushed in to impoverishment and marginalises condition and they developed the feeling of helplessness. It is high time to think for the proper RRin order to introduce the new economic reforms successfully. Notes References i The term “displacement” is used most often in the context of physical departure from the current homeland but is mainly associated with the loss of existing economic and social facilities and of access to the relevant resources with no benefits gained in return. The term displacement is mostly applied to the situation of individuals tribes and communities that have been cut off from their current socio-economic base and as a result have seen their standard of functioning deteriorate significantly.

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ii The category of resettlement has a definitely more process-related character than displacement. The term “resettlement” used here in the context of relocation based usually accompanied by adequate support to the cost of the depletion of former resources. Thus it is compensated. iii It was constituted in 1985 under Gujarat Town Planning and Area Development Act of 1963 for planned industrial development of area under its jurisdiction. Nine villages Hajira Sunvali Rajgari Mora Bhatali Dmaka Vansva Kavas and Limla spread over 86 sq. km. come under HADAs jurisdiction. HADA region comprises 14.5 percent area of Choryasi taluka of Surat district and 17.2 percent of the total rural area of the taluka. The land is mainly saline and marshy. The terrain is undulating with chain of sand dunes and drifting sands making agriculture less productive. iv Out of total 431 family of entire village the livelihood pattern of Hajira reveals that around 30 percent families of were depending upon the agricultural and related activities 39 percent engaged in jobs and the rest 31 percent were found engaged in varieties of activities such as scrap collection work driving lari- galla petty shop business tailoring work rental income compounder maid servant artisan work etc. v The land was used for various purposes such as for erection of plants construction of roads railway warehouses townships ancillary units etc. The lands were acquired through diverse methods by acquisition purchase grabbing encroachment etc. vi It is to be noted that the village common land was used by the people of Hajira as a customary rights since generations. The sea strip land was used by the fishermen as fishing ground but due to the arrival of port in Hajira the fishermen have also lost their source of income. It has also resulted in worsening the condition of the people of Hajira. vii This study was carried-out for Shell India limited engaged in Port development Project at Hajira. viii Akash 2000:1 observed five main economic activities carried out by women in these areas 1 Growing vegetables and selling them 28 percent 2 Animal husbandry- Selling milk 25 percent 3 Agriculture labor 4 Fishing 5 percent and 5 Working as maidservant in industrial townships 5 percent. Other activities include selling knitted items working as midwife school teacher running a retail shop etc. ix Akash Acharya 2000 found that in day-to-day life women is more burden than men in terms of long work hours but lot of the work they do never gets recognised. x The condition especially of women becomes pathetic as they only remained the bread winner of the family though scrap collection activity and working as “maid servant” in the township. xi After complication of authors field work one woman had died as she was burnt by the iron part which was very hot. Some of the chemicals are dangerous to their health. Moreover they have to stretch out the scrap and hence during their work much dust goes in their body through breathing. xii The method of attached labor is very much popular in South Gujarat in which a labor generally takes advance money from his master on a day of Akhatrij i.e. beginning of the new year of the peasant castes and bind by the verbal agreement that he would served as labour throughout the year with a fix price and two meals a day and tea and snacks. In between he would not left his master no famer will allow him to do labour work elsewhere ones agreed. QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3 17

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xiii Advance payment method was also found prominent among the fishermen community of the village. Traders of Surat made mutual contract with the local fishermen to sell out fishes to the particular trader/s throughout the year at the fix price in lieu of advance. Many of the fishermen have such contracts not just for security but also for assured market. Once they make such agreement in such case they do not have to worry much for marketing their fish. xiv The families are curtailing the use of some basic items like meat sea food edible oil vegetables dry fruits etc. It may create adverse repercussions on their health at the long run. Reduction in sea food is because of reduced the availability of sea food and also decrease of the purchasing power of the people more specifically of middle and the poor people of Hajira. xv The assumption is that with cash the family will purchase land elsewhere. xvi Out of total 34 SFs who have lost their land of them 6 have yet to receive compensation of the land they have lost. The court cases are going on with regards to their land. 1. Acharya Akash. 2000. “Women Participation in Income Generation in Hajira Area” mimeo Surat: Centre for Social Studies. 2. Anand Venkatesh and Jain Chandan 2012. Impact of Industrialization on Rural Communities -An Overview in their un- published paper presented at IDRC-TTI workshop on Rural- Urban Linkages 21St and 22nd August 2012 IRMA Anand. 3. Bhaduri Amit 2005. Development with Dignity: A Case for Full Employment. New Delhi India: National Book Trust 4. Cernea Michael and Hari Mohan Mathur ed. 2 0 0 8 . C a n c o m p e n s a t i o n P re v e n t Impoverishment Reforming Resettlement through Investments. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 5. World Bank document 2004. Involuntary Resettlement Source Book Planning and Implementation in Development projects The World Bank The International Bank for Remonstration and Development Washington DC USA 6. Lobo Lancy and Shashikant Kumar 2009. Land Acquisition Displacement and Resettlement in Gujarat 1947-2004 New Delhi: Sage Publication India Pvt. Ltd. 7. Patel Ankit 2012a. " Exploring the Impact of Science Technology and Industrialization: A Case of Hajira village in Gujarat" M.Phil. Dissertation Central University of Gujarat. 8. Patel Ankit 2012b." Assessing the Corporate Social Responsibility Programmes: A case of Hajira village Gujarat" Vikas Vani Journal Jabalpur: A XIDCOM publication. 9. Patel Ankit 2014." Development Induced Displacement: A Case of Hajira in Gujarat" Rethinking Development Emerging Issues and Contemporary Debates New Delhi: Excel India Publishers. 10. Prakash B.A. 2012.The Indian Economy since 1991: Economic Reforms and Performance New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Private Limited. 11. R a j k i s h o r M e h e r 2 0 0 9 2 5 : 4 5 7 Globalization Displacement and the Livelihood Issues of Tribal and Agriculture Dependent Poor People: The Case of Mineral- based Industries in IndiaJournal of Developing Societies New Delhi Sage Publication. 12. https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/ content/article/209-bwi-wto/42796-joseph stiglitz.htm Accessed on dated 20-3-2015. 18

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New Additions to the Legal Framework of Waste Management Fazalahmed B. Khan Advisor Urban Legal Services All India Institute of Local Self-Government. Cleanliness and sanitation of the cities and towns is one of the core functions of municipalities which they have been performing since their inception in the 17th century. However the last two decades form a significant phase when this customary function mandated for the local authorities was elevated into a legal framework and brought on scientific lines inter alia for better management and to minimize adverse effect on the environment and safety to the handlers of the waste. These rules provide for a systematic management of respectively categorized wastes which include their handling collection segregation hygienic storage treatment processing and recycling where needed transportation and disposal in a safe and secured manner. Various authorities including the Central Government State Governments Municipalities Pollution Control Boards are mandated to perform specific functions. Responsibilities are cast on generators of the wastes including the owners and occupiers where wastes are generated for segregation and storage. Being statutory rules made under the provisions of the Environment Protection Act 1986 they carry the binding force of law. The year 2016 assumes significance when this was the year when new rules for management of various types of wastes were launched and the existing rules were revamped. Here is a brief review of the launching of new rules and revision of existing rules in the year 2016. Existing rules prior to 2016 One of the core functions of a municipality is to maintain cleanliness and sanitation in cities and towns. Municipalities in India have been discharging this function since their inception and have been adopting various methods and technologies for the disposal of the wastes and sewage with mixed successes and failures including the fact that they have been dumping wastes and garbage on the inhabitable places on the outskirts of the cities. This was happening in all the cities and towns. One such happening was that when the garbage thrown by the Bangalore Municipal Corporation reached a village on the outskirts of the city near the village of a lady. She had scientific training and a social bent of mind. She did not complain to the authority concerned against the nuisance but began to study the problem and visited various cities for observation. Name of Mrs. Almitra Patel will always be associated in being instrumental in bringing about systematic disposal rather management of solid waste because of exceptional initiative of filing PIL in the Supreme Court against open dumping of municipal solid waste. The PIL was heard at length and finally judgment in the PIL resulted in the Government of India passing statutory rules in the form of Solid Waste Management Management and Handling Rules 2000 under the Environment Protection Act 1986. 19 QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3

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Prior to 2016 the following rules were in operation which were amended from time to time. 1 Hazardous Waste Management and Handling Rules 1989 which were amended in 20002003 and 2008. Thereafter following rules have been made. 2 Bio-Medical Waste Management and Handling Rules1998 which were amended in 2000 2003 and 2011. 3 E-Waste Management and Handling Rules 2011. THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING RULES 2016 The Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules 2016 replace the rules of 2000. Implementation of every scheme or rules throws up valuable experience that makes for improvement and extension of the rules to the uncovered aspects. The MSW Rules in themselves were landmark rules whose implementation experience also provided for improvements and enlargements which came in the form of these new rules. Some of the broad features of the new rules are as under. The earlier rules applied to municipal authorities. The new rules in addition to all Urban Local Bodies also apply to urban agglomerations census towns notified industrial townships areas under the control of Indian railways airports special economic zones pilgrimage places and places of historical importance. Domestic hazardous waste is also covered under the new rules. The earlier did not provide for segregation of waste and responsibilities of waste generators. These rules made this vital aspect mandatory for waste generators. They also provide for payment of User Fee by the generators for the collection services availed of by them. In order the rules to be more effective some penalty is needed for violation of rules. The new rules provide for “Spot Fine” for littering. The new rules recognize the services of rag-pickiers and makes for formalization of rag pickers by preparing State Policy and strategies to recognize the role played. The new rules also recognize the role played by the recycling industry. State Governments have been mandated to make allocation of land for solid waste management in Master Plans of cities and towns etc. CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES 2016 Cities and towns are going through the phase of massive constructions and reconstructions inter alia involving demolition of old structures. The dust generated in these activities on a large scale poses a health hazard particularly in the form of particulate matter PM 10 which gets lodged in the lungs causing serious health issues. As per assessment of the Government dust contributes about 20 of pollution in big cities and about 530 billion tonnes of construction and demolition waste CD waste is generated annually in India. A basic mantra of waste management is that if property managed every waste is a resource. The Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change Government of India notified the Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules 2015 on 29th March 2016. 1. Duties of the Generators of Construction and Demolition Waste: Every waste generator shall segregate construction and demolition waste and deposit it at collection centre of handover to the authorized processing facilities. The generator includes builders construction firms individuals etc. They will have to get approval for their waste management plans do segregation of this waste and pay relevant charges for collection transportation processing and disposal. 2. The State Governments are mandated to- i The Urban Development Department is required to prepare their policy with respect to management of construction and demolition waste within one year of the date of notification of the rules. 20

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ii The Department of the State Government concerned with land matters shall have to provide suitable sites for setting up storage processing and recycling facilities for CD waste within one and a half year from the notification of these rules. iii The Department dealing with Town and Country Planning shall incorporate the site in the approved land use plan so that there is no disturbance to the processing facility on long- term basis. iv The Departments of the State Government shall be required to utilize 10-20 materials made from CD waste in Government contracts. 3. Local Authorities: Following duties are cast on the Local Authorities under the rules namely-to place appropriate containers for collection of CD waste removal transportation to appropriate for processing land disposal to provide for safe disposal of CD waste contaminated with industrial hazardous or toxic material or nuclear waste to give appropriate incentives to generator for salvaging processing and or recycling preferably in-situ. 4. Pollution Control Boards i The Central Pollution Control Board is required to prepare operational guidelines related to environmental management of CD waste. ii State Pollution Control Boards shall be responsible for granting authorization to CD waste processing facility monitor the implementation of the rules by the concerned local bodies and submit annual report to the CPCB and the State Government. BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES 2016 Bio-medical waste is generated on a large scale in a host of health care institutions like hospitals dispensaries pathological laboratories etc. which requires a strict regulatory framework for the segregation processing treatment and disposal of these bio-medical wastes in a secure manner to avoid its impact on the environment. With these objectives the Bio-Medical Waste Management and Handling Rules were made in 1998 and revised in 2000 2003 and 2011. The existing rules were further revised in 2016. The words “and handling” have been omitted as handling is an aspect of management. Some of the salient features of BMW Management Rules 2016 include the following:- a The ambit of the rules has been expanded to include vaccination camps blood donation camps surgical camps or any other healthcare activity b Phase-out the use of chlorinated plastic bags gloves and blood bags within two years c Pre-treatment of the laboratory waste microbiological waste blood samples and blood bags through disinfection or sterilization on-site in the manner as prescribed by WHOor NACO d Establish a Bar-Code System for bags or containers containing bio-medical waste for disposal e Bio-medical waste has been classified in to 4 categories instead 10 to improve the segregation of waste at source f Procedure to get authorization simplified. Automatic authorisation for bedded hospitals. The validity of authorization synchronized with validity of consent orders for Bedded HCFs. One time Authorization for Non-bedded HCFs 21 QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE RCUES OF AIILSG MUMBAI VOL. 10 NO. 3

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22 g Inclusion of emissions limits for Dioxin and furans h State Government to provide land for setting up common bio-medical waste treatment and disposal facility HAZARDOUS AND OTHER WASTES MANAGEMENT AND TRANSBOUNDARY RULES 2016 The first in the series of waste management rules were the Hazardous Wastes Management and Handling Rules 1989 which were revised in 2000 and 2003. As defined “Hazardous Waste” means any waste which by reason of its physical chemical reactive toxic flammable explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances. These rules were thoroughly revised and notified as the Hazardous and Other Wastes Management and Transboundary Rules 2016. The term. “Other Wastes” include waste tyre paper waste metal scrap used electronic items etc. The main focus of the rules is the resource recovery and a hierarchy in the sequence of priority of prevention minimization reuse recycling recovery co-processing and safe disposal. Another distinguishing feature of the new rules is that they provide the basic necessity of infrastructure to safeguard the health and environment from waste processing industry has been prescribed as Standard Operating Procedure SOPs specific to waste type which has to be complied by the stakeholders and ensured by SPCB/PCC while granting such authorization. E-WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES 2016 We are living in an electronics age when electronic items abound. When their life is over these items are discarded as waste. The e-waste includes discarded computers refrigerators mobile phones television sets and various electronic devices. As per an estimate about 17 lakh tonnes of E-waste is generated every year with an annual increase of 5 per cent of generation of E-waste. The scrap industry recycles and salvages these wastes. These activities pose severe health risks to the handlers and have hazardous effect on the environment. For safe and scientific management of these activities the E-Waste Management and Handling Rules 2011 were made which applied to every producer consumer or bulk consumer involved in the manufacture sale purchase and processing of electrical and specified electronic equipment or components collection centre dismantler and recycler of e-waste. These rules are superseded by the E-Waste Management Rules 2016. The new rules bring the electric lamps mercury lamps and such other items also within the ambit of the rules. They bring the producers under the Extended Producer Responsibility along with targets making them responsible for collection of E- waste and for its exchange. A duty is cast on the bulk consumers to collect the items and hand them over to authorized recyclers. The process of dismantling and recycling has been simplified through one system of authorization and that the Central Pollution Control Board will give the single authorization throughout the country. The role of State Governments has been also introduced to ensure safety health and skill development of the workers involved in dismantling and recycling operations and provision of penalty for violation of rules has been introduced.

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Principal Secretary Urban Development Govt. of Maharashtra Mumbai. Joint Secretary DAY-NULM Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Government of India New Delhi. Principal Secretary Urban Development and Urban Housing Dept. Government of Gujarat Gandhinagar. Addl. Chief Secretary Urban Development and Housing Dept. Government of Rajasthan Jaipur. Secretary Urban Development Government of Goa Goa. Secretary Urban Development Govt. of Assam Dispur Guwahati. Principal Secretary Urban Development Govt. of Tripura Agartala Tripura. Director Indian Institute of Public Administration IIPA Indraprashta Estate New Delhi. Professor Head Department of Civics and Politics University of Mumbai Mumbai. Director-General All India Institute of Local Self-Government Mumbai Director Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies All India Institute of Local Self-Government Mumbai. Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies Mumbai Advisory Committee Ex-Officio Chairperson Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member-Secretary Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies RCUES Mumbai Fully supported by Ministry of Housing Urban Affairs Government of India undertakes Urban Policy Research. w Tailored Training and Capacity Building Programmes in Urban Management and Urban Governance. w Capacity Building for Urban Poverty Alleviation. w Anchoring Innovative Urban Poverty Reduction Projects Aadhar for Municipal Corporations. w Project Management Social Auditing. w Information Education Communication IEC in Urban Sector. w Training of Trainers TOT in Urban Management. w Technical Advisory Services in the Urban Development Urban Management Sector w Study Visits for ULBs for Experience Sharing and Cross Learning w Community Based Interventions. w Human Resources Development. w Interdisciplinary Programmes. w Knowledge Management. w Networking. w Ms. Manisha Mhaiskar IAS w Mr. Sanjay Kumar IAS w Mr. Mukesh Puri IAS w Mr. Mukesh Sharma IAS w Mr. Sudhir Mahajan IAS w Mr. Sanjib Kumar Gohain Baruah IAS w Mr. Lok Ranjan IAS w Dr. T. Chatterjee IAS Retd w Dr. Mrs. Sudha Mohan w Mr. Ashish Deosthali w Ms. Utkarsha Kavadi

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