Women Related Issues and Gender Budgeting in ULBs 14-7-2015

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Dr. Vibhuti Patel, Professor and Head, University Department of Economics SNDT Women’s University Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Phone-91-022-26770227 Mobile-9321040048 1 Women Related Issues in Gender Budgeting for Urban Local Self Government Bodies

Women Elected Representatives(WERs) in Urban Local Self government Bodies (ULSB):

Women Elected Representatives(WERs) in Urban Local Self government Bodies (ULSB) The 73 rd and 74th amendments in the Indian constitution in 1994. PRI Legislation 1 million WERs in Panchayati Raj Institutions The 9 th 5 Years Plan(1997-2002)-WCP to ensure that not less than 30% of development sectors funds and benefits flow to women. Goals-Good Governance, transparency, efficiency, social audit and accountability GR to 34 ministries to submit gender audit of allocation and actual expenditure on women . 2

Municipal(M) Budgets:

Municipal(M) Budgets The Accounts Superintendent tables statement for income and expenditure in December. Also gives estimates of income and expenditure for the financial year end. Response from Municipal commissioner, president of Municipality, and standing committee. Portion for committed fund can’t be changed by councilors at the time of final approval Revision of property tax once in 4 years . 3

Three Aspects of PRI Budgets:

Three Aspects of PRI Budgets State & Central government’s Allocation State and Centrally sponsored schemes Revenues obtained thro’ local taxes-water, electricity, road, etc. Funds obtained from the Finance Commissions 4

Challenges for Women elected representatives while making Bottom Up budgets:

Challenges for Women elected representatives while making Bottom Up budgets How to enable women to direct economy through designing and constructing fiscal policy? How to link economic governance to political governance ? How to enable EWRs to participate in the budget-making efforts ? Method-Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Focus Group discussion (FGD) 5

Macro-economic Policies and Gender Audit of State Budgets:

Macro-economic Policies and Gender Audit of State Budgets Trends of allocation to social sector in the pre (before 1991) and post(after 1991) SAP phase Income and expenditure of municipalities in Orissa-Profile of PDS and public health Preparation of checklist according to priorities set by the PRIs IDEAL BUDGET 6

Meetings with the stake holders:

Meetings with the stake holders Discussion on Needs of GP identified by EWRs with GOs and NGOs, SHGs 1. Socio-economic Profile of the Municipal Corporation/council/ward 2. Scrutiny of needs-perceived problems 3. Methods to fulfill needs( Labour, land, services)+financial aspects 4. Suitable budgetary allocations-revenues from local sources 7

Tasks of Citizens Association:

Tasks of Citizens Association Verify/cross check collected data and results of the surveys/interactive workshops-Vision document Sub-committees to work out details of different budget heads Presentation of reports thro’ ERWs to TP, ZP and municipal authorities Lobbying for reprioritization of allocation to reflect the EWRs. 8

Activity Mapping : Beyond Grievance Redressal-Awareness about technicalities of Budget, Building knowledge, procedural information about Critical issues/Felt Needs:

Activity Mapping : Beyond Grievance Redressal - Awareness about technicalities of Budget, Building knowledge, procedural information about Critical issues/Felt Needs 9 Urban Areas Non-payments of Electricity Bill , property tax Violation of corporation rules Garbage disposal, occupational Health Housing Hospital Educational institutions Public toilets, drainage Transport facilities

Stack groups in support of EWRs:

Stack groups in support of EWRs Self Help Groups Administrators Political parties Corporators /councilors NGOs Women in the communities To seek allocation under appropriate budget heads to identify streams of revenue Available revenue and the required expenditure 10

Method of Revenue Generation:

Method of Revenue Generation Increase in tax revenues for road use by vehicle owners alcohol consumption Tobacco consumption Introduce Green Taxes Surcharge, earmarked charge for specific purpose-Education Cess-2 %, income tax for disaster management, in Maharashtra transport cess at the time of Bangladesh was in 1971, later on diverted to EGS kitty 11

Some unresolved Issues:

Some unresolved Issues How to bridge the gap between notional allocation and actual allocation? Accounting, auditing and record keeping of gender disaggregated data & allocation How to achieve physical and performance/ achievement targets Implementation of maternity benefits, TCP,SCP Major departments claiming indivisibilities of allocation of resources Safety of women and children Notional allocation projected as real allocation Absence of uniform guidelines & procedures 12

Gender budgeting in PRIs:

Gender budgeting in PRIs Special programmes targeting women Differential impact of expenditures across all sector and services-gender disaggregated impact on literacy, school drop outs, mortality, morbidity, starvation deaths, nutrition, illnesses Review of equal opportunities, policies and opportunities in the public sector-jobs, school education, wages, health care, skills, technical training, computer education, one stop crisis centre for survivors of violence Gender sensitisation of ‘law and order’ machinery and governance structures: police, judges, administrators, corporators, political workers 13

NIPFP classification of public expenditure concerning women:

NIPFP classification of public expenditure concerning women Targeted 100% to women (DWCD) Pro women schemes(30 % reserved for women-All anti-poverty programmes) Gender Neutral Schemes meant for community as a whole(Employment generation programmes) Residual schemes 34 central ministries to ensure fund flow to women specific and women related schemes 14

Protective and Welfare Services:

Protective and Welfare Services Shelter homes, short stay homes Rehabilitation schemes for women survivors of violence Pensions for widows and destitute women Directly benefiting women, Crisis management of situations arising out of economic and socio-cultural subordination and dehumanisation of women 15

Social Services Expenditure for capacity building, reduction of domestic drudgery and better quality of life :

Social Services Expenditure for capacity building, reduction of domestic drudgery and better quality of life Education Health Crèche Working women’s hostels Housing Nutrition Water supply Sanitation-toilets, drainage Fuel Fodder 16

Economic Services to provide economic opportunities to women:

Economic Services to provide economic opportunities to women SHGs-credit, loans to self employed women Training programmes Physical infrastructure-transport, energy Marketing Safety of women in informal sector-steps against harassment 17

Regulatory Services to put in place institutional structures and mechanisms :

Regulatory Services to put in place institutional structures and mechanisms State Commission for Women Women’s cell at the police stations Awareness generation programmes Public education on legal safeguards 18

Need of an Hour:

Need of an Hour State governments must devolve substantive powers, funds, functions, functionaries upon PRIs. Activities, tasks & responsibilities of GP,TP and ZP-Direct funding from the union Govt. to ZP Simplifications of programme guidelines by central ministries and departments Centrally sponsored Schemes must be recast to empower PRIs. PRIs must get untied funds to formulate plans according to their needs and priorities. CMP promise-at least 100 days of employment at minimum wages Measures to make our urban areas safe for women and girls-One stop crisis centre for women survivors of violence 19

If we don’t engender budgets, women’s lives will be endangered.:

If we don’t engender budgets, women’s lives will be endangered. Thank you 20

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