GENDER BUDGET : Prof. Vibhuti Patel

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Gender Budget : 

Gender Budget A presentation By Dr. Vibhuti Patel Director, PGSR Professor and Head P.G. Department of Economics, S.N. D. T. Women’s University, Mumbai E mail: Vibhuti.np@gmail.com Mobile- 9321040048 Phone-91-022-27770227 1

What is Gender Budgeting ? : 

What is Gender Budgeting ? Gender Budgeting is not a separate budget for women; rather it is a dissection of the government budget to establish its gender-differential impacts and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. The main objective of a gender-sensitive budget is to a. improve the analysis of incidence of budgets, b. attain more effective targeting of public expenditure and c. offset any undesirable gender-specific consequences of previous budgetary measures. 2

Genesis- Australia : 

Genesis- Australia Australia was the first country to develop a gender-sensitive budget, with the Federal government publishing in 1984 the first comprehensive audit of a government budget for its impact on women and girls. Women’s budget exercises were also undertaken by each of the Australian State and Territory governments at various times during the 1980s and 1990s. 3

An official Stamp : 

An official Stamp The Fourth World Conference of Women held in Beijing in September 1995 and the Platform for Action that it adopted called for a gender perspective in all macroeconomic policies and their budgetary dimensions. The Outcome Document of the UN General Assembly Special Session on Women held in June 2000, also called upon all the Nations to mainstream a gender perspective into key macroeconomic and social development policies and national development programmes. Emphasis on gender budgeting was also placed by the Sixth Conference of Commonwealth Ministers of Women’s Affairs held in New Delhi in April 2000. 4

Gender Budgeting in 84 countries : 

Gender Budgeting in 84 countries South Africa followed and initiated formation of gender sensitive budget in 1995, through participatory process of involving parliamentarians and NGOs. The Commonwealth initiative to integrate gender into national budgetary processes was started in 1997 in four countries other than South Africa such as Fiji, St Kitts and Nevis, Barbados (the Caribbean Islands), and Sri Lanka. Several other nations have also taken steps to engender their national budget (Canada, UK, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania and Uganda). Gender budget initiatives are currently being attempted in 84 countries following diverse trajectories in terms of the process and partners involved in undertaking the activity. 5

Gender Audit of Budgets in India : 

Gender Audit of Budgets in India Genesis Towards Equality Report, 1974 The Sixth Five Year Plan-Women & Development Shram Shakti Report, 1988 National Perspective Plan for women, 1988 The Eighth Five Year Plan:“…the benefits of development from different sectors should not bypass women and special programmes on women should complement the general development programmes. The latter, in turn, should reflect greater gender sensitivity”. The Ninth Five Year Plan: Women Component plan “not less than 30 per cent of the funds/benefits are earmarked in all the women’s related sectors” . 6

Why Gender Budgeting? : 

Why Gender Budgeting? Gendered budget analysis can help to focus on these neglected aspects; it provides women with the vital information regarding the contents and focus of existing government policies. Armed with that, women can confront policy-makers and demand changes in policies as per their needs and choices. The process is for greater transparency and for deepening of democracy. 7

Gender Gap in 5 Critical Areas : 

Gender Gap in 5 Critical Areas 8 Economic participation, Economic opportunity, Political empowerment, Educational attainment, Health and well-being. Historical neglect & Institutionalised hegemony Gap between formal equality & substantive equality Most marginalised: Dalit, tribal, disabled, Muslim, HIV positive women

National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001 : 

National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001 “In order to support better planning and programme formulation and adequate allocation of resources, Gender Development Indices (GDI) will be developed by networking with specialized agencies. Gender auditing and development of evaluation mechanisms will also be undertaken along side. Collection of gender disaggregated data by all primary data collecting agencies of the Central and State Governments as well as research and academic institutions in the Public and Private Sectors will be undertaken. Data and information gaps in vital areas reflecting the status of women will be sought to be filled in. All Ministries/Corporations/Banks and financial institutions etc. will be advised to collect, collate, disseminate data related to programmes and benefits on a gender-disaggregated basis. This will help in meaningful planning and evaluation of policies.” 9

Purpose of GB Exercise : 

Purpose of GB Exercise Gender budgeting exercises are meant to verify from actual schemes and allotments included in the budget , how far these intentions are actually being translated into concrete policies. If our efforts to scan budgets for gender sensitivity really result in a positive approach to promoting gender equality, we would have indeed won the battle. if we demystify budgets, and people and especially women learn more about them, that alone would make it a legitimate exercise. National Common Minimum Programme, “ to fully empower women politically, educationally, economically and legally” 10

Gender Commitments translated into Budgetary Commitments : 

Gender Commitments translated into Budgetary Commitments Transparency/accountability for revenue generation & public expenditure Reprioritisation in public spending Lift the veil of statistical invisibility of the unpaid ‘care economy’ Equality & efficiency dimension Transform macro policy Gender Budgeting Statement: Part A-100% benefits accrue to women, part B-At least 30% share for women called composite schemes 11

Actors in Gender Budgeting : 

Actors in Gender Budgeting 12 .Translation of Policy Statement into budgetary / financial statements- For implementation of the plan, gender sensitive budgetary provisions, proper, efficient and effective utilisation of allocated resources, crucial role of elected representatives and motivated civil servants/ administrators, consistent monitoring by women’s bodies/gender budget cells in the ministries & departments of state and central government and PRIs and civil society organisations.

Gender Impact of Budget : 

Gender Impact of Budget Budgetary Allocations for Women’s Programmes Empowerment Budgetary Cuts reduced opportunities for women SAP & Globalisation women’s unpaid work burden, thereby women provided subsidy in the economy. Devaluation, price-rise, erosion of PDS, agrarian crisis, unemployment 13

Women’s Component in Five Year Plans : 

Women’s Component in Five Year Plans I FYP (1951-56) Formation of CSWB 1953 II FYP-Development of Mahila Mandals III & IV FYPs & interim plans(1961-74)-Women’s Education and Mother & Child Health V FYP (1974-78)-Welfare Development VI FYP(1980-85)-WD as separate economic agenda-Health, Education, Employment VII FYP(1986-1991)-WID-integration into mainstream VIII FYP(1992-97)- Development Empowerment outlay, Rs. 4 cr. In I FYP to Rs. 2000 cr. In VIII FYP IX FYP (1997-2002)- W Empowerment Policy, 2001, 30% of funds/benefits from development sector to Women 14

X & XI FYPs and Gender Budgeting : 

X & XI FYPs and Gender Budgeting Appreciate efforts at ensuring gender-just and gender-sensitive budget Will continue the process of dissecting the govt. budget to establish its gender-differential impact Translate gender commitment to budgetary commitments-Outlay of Rs. 13780 crore Women Component Plan & GB to play complimentary role for effective convergence, proper utilisation and monitoring of fund from various developmental sectors . 15

Critique of “IS” Budget and Advocacy for “OUGHT to” Budget : 

Critique of “IS” Budget and Advocacy for “OUGHT to” Budget To engender budgets at the Panchayat, state and national levels, we need to analyse budgets scheme-wise, sector wise, category wise and year wise with their budget estimates, revised estimates and actual expenditure. So far GB has been post facto effort to dissect/analyse & thus offset any undesirable consequences of the previous budget. Gender Budgeting involves 1. Review of the public expenditure profile 2. Conducing Beneficiary Incidence Analysis 3. Recommending changes in operational guidelines 4. Ensuing women’s active participation in all 3 16

Women Empowerment Policy 2001 and Budget 2001-2 : 

Women Empowerment Policy 2001 and Budget 2001-2 Women's status and women's bargaining power in the economy have a major bearing in the budgetary policy. Yearly analysis of the budget from the point of view of women is a must to enhance women's economic interest and socio-political standing in the economy. Analysis of budget from gender perspective makes us understand what are the nature, character and content of Women’s share of development cake. Gender economists started scrutinising budgets with gender lens Confusion about schemes: Indira Avas Yojana, Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana, scholarships for Minority, NYK-Entire allocation shown in GB 17

Highlights of the Union Budget-2002-3 w.r. to women and children : 

Highlights of the Union Budget-2002-3 w.r. to women and children Increase in the plan allocation for DWCD by 33 %. Total Amount- Rs. 2200 crores 100 scholarships in Dept. of S & T for women scientists and technologists National Nutrition Mission- Food Grains at subsidized rate to girls & expectant & Nursing Mothers (BPL)-Rs. 1 crore 18

Demand 52 Dept. of W & CD, 2002-3 : 

Demand 52 Dept. of W & CD, 2002-3 Swadhar-shelter, food, clothing Care to women & girls living in difficult circumstances/ no support- 13.50 Rs. crore Swayamsiddha Scheme to build training capacity-Rs. 0.01 crore Gender aware micro planning- Rs.0.01 crore NN Mission for LBW babies, IMR, anaemia, iodine deficiency in adults- Rs. 1 crore SHGs for micro enterprises- Rs.18.15 crore 19

Demand No. 86, Water Budget, 2002-3 : 

Demand No. 86, Water Budget, 2002-3 Monitoring of water quality---Rs.0.50 cr Safety of old dams-------------Rs.0.10 cr Rain water Harvesting---------Rs.0.10 cr Poor urban, rural, tribal women’s major survival struggle revolves around safe drinking water. Leaving supply of water to private players has enhanced hardship of common women. Commercialisation of water 20

Slide 21: 

21

Gender Audit of Union Budget 2003-4 : 

Gender Audit of Union Budget 2003-4 Increased allocation-Rs.2600 crores 1.76 % of total budgetary allocation for women specific schemes and programmes BPL population- 25 to 30 crores, the budget promises to cover only 50 lakh families on Antyodaya Scheme, in the context of 52 m tons of food grains rotting in FCI go down. 1 % cut of interest on small savings has affected SHGs adversely. Privatisation of education, health, insurance 22

Demand for Grants of DW&CD, GoI, 2003-4 : 

Demand for Grants of DW&CD, GoI, 2003-4 23

Budgetary Allocation for 2003-4 : 

Budgetary Allocation for 2003-4 24

Food Subsidy (2003-4 and 2004-5) : 

Food Subsidy (2003-4 and 2004-5) Union budget (2003-4) made provision of Rs. 25000 The interim budget for 2004-5 estimated that food subsidy would stand at Rs. 27800 crore. More than enough buffer stock- rooting in the poorly equipped and managed ware-houses But main problem- Distribution of food-grains Dismantling of Public Distribution System Food-grains exported at lower price than at PDS- poor are forced to starve or buy from the open market 25

Budget Allocations for 2005-6, Expenditure Budget, 10 demands for Grants : 

Budget Allocations for 2005-6, Expenditure Budget, 10 demands for Grants 26

Budget Allocations for 2006-7, Expenditure BudgetTotal Allocation for DWCD- Rs. 4852.94 crores. 24 demands of Grants under 18 ministries and departments. Rs. 22251 crore (RE) : 

Budget Allocations for 2006-7, Expenditure BudgetTotal Allocation for DWCD- Rs. 4852.94 crores. 24 demands of Grants under 18 ministries and departments. Rs. 22251 crore (RE) 27

Budgetary Allocations for 2007-833 demands of Grants, 27 ministriesRs. 31178 crore : 

Budgetary Allocations for 2007-833 demands of Grants, 27 ministriesRs. 31178 crore Dept. of School Education- Rs. 9239 crore Dept. of higher Education- Rs. 1370 crore Dept. of Health & Family Welfare- Rs. 6706 crore NRHM-RCH Rs. 1673 crore Housing- Indira Awas Yojana Rs. 3636 crore (men & women) Food Supply Rs. 25696 crore Employment (SGRY) Rs. 2700 crore 28

Major disappointments in Budget 2007-08 : 

Major disappointments in Budget 2007-08 Water SS & Sanitation NO MENTION OF WOMEN No separate allocation for Implementation of domestic Violence Act, 2005. In sub-plan for minorities, no specific allocations for minority women/ female headed households Inadequate allocation for Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for Children of Working Mothers Dangerous consequences of tax free clinical trials to private sector will make the poor guinea pigs. 29

Welfare of Women LabourersBudget 2007-08 : 

Welfare of Women LabourersBudget 2007-08 Labour Welfare Scheme- Rs. 264 crore Social Security for Unorganised sector Rs. 5 crore (Needed more financial allocation ) Improvements in Working Conditions of child & women workers Rs. 171 crore 30

Special Intervention Under MWCD in 2007-08 Union Budget : 

Special Intervention Under MWCD in 2007-08 Union Budget Rajiv Gandhi Creche Scheme Rs. 56.50 crore Working Women’s Hostel Rs. 5.00 crore Swadhar Rs. 15.00 crore Rescue of victims of trafficking-Rs.10.0 crore Conditional cash transfer for Girl child (for the 1st time) Rs. 15.0 crore NO SCHEMES FOR MINORITY WOMEN by Ministry of Minority Affairs 31

Special emphasis in 2008-09 Budgets : 

Special emphasis in 2008-09 Budgets Increased allocation for scholarships for SC, ST. Minorities The allocation to the ministry of Minority Affairs –Rs. 1000 crores to fund a multi-sectoral development plan for 90 minority concentration districts- 256 public sector banks functioning in these areas and 288 more branches will be opened in2008-09 Increase in allocation to social sectors Statement on child related schemes 32

Gender Budgeting in 2008-09 : 

Gender Budgeting in 2008-09 54 gender budget cells in Ministries & departments of GOI and 33 demand of grants by 27 ministries & 5 union territories. Rs. 7200 cr. Allocated for Ministry of Women & Child Development Rs. 11460 Cr. Allocated for 100% women specific demands Rs. 16202 allocated for schemes where at least 30 % is for women specific schemes Rs. 32667 allocated for PDS Increase in threshold limit of exemption for women income-tax payers-Rs. 1,80000 33

Targeting Rural India, 2008-09 : 

Targeting Rural India, 2008-09 Commercial banks to target 250 rural households accounts in their rural & semi-urban branches- Female headed household? Debt Relief Package-Rs. 60000/- & Waiver for loan for marginal & small farmers-Rs. 50000/- National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme- Rs. 16000/- (women constitute 2/3 of workforce) Janashree Bima Yojana for SHGs Skill Development- model Schools 34

Slide 35: 

Crèche Scheme- Rs. 100 crores NIPCCD (training, workshops)-Rs. 20 crores ICDS+ supplementary nutrition-Rs. 6300 cr. Integrated Scheme for Street Children-Rs. 10 crores Scheme for Child Workers- Rs. 7 crores Schemes for Prevention of Juvenile Rs. 20 crores Social Maladjustment CARA (Central Adoption Resource Agency) Rs. 2 crores Integrated child Protection Scheme Rs. 200 crores Child Welfare Rs. 66 crores 35 Schemes for Women & Children, 2008-09

Schemes for Women & Girls, 2008-09 : 

Schemes for Women & Girls, 2008-09 Conditional Cash Transfer for the Girl Child with Insurance cover Rs. 10 crores Condensed Courses for Women-Rs. 7 crores Hostels for working women- Rs. 20 crores STEP- Support for Training & Emp. Pro- Rs. 37 crore CSWB (Central social Welfare Board) Rs. 26 crores Short Stay Homes Rs. 16 crores Combating Trafficking Rs. 10 crores National Nutrition mission Rs. 1 crore Nutrition Education Scheme Rs. 10 crores 36

Schemes for Women’s Empowerment : 

Schemes for Women’s Empowerment Awareness Generation Programme Rs. 6 crores National Commission for Women Rs. 5 crores Rashtriya Mahila Kosh Rs. 31 crores Swayamsiddha-SHGs Rs. 200 crores Swadhar Rs. 20 crores Priyadarshini (for Empowerment & Livelihood) Rs. 23 crores Scheme for Leadership Development of Minority women as per Recommendation of Sachar Committee Report for services, skills & opportunities-Rs. 5 crores Gender budgeting & Gender Data Rs. 3 crores IT for DWCD of MWCD of GoI Rs. 2 crores 37

Unresolved Issues in 2008-09 budgets : 

Unresolved Issues in 2008-09 budgets Widows’ pension Women friendly transport Housing for women Financial inclusion by Banks-Differential rate of interest No clarity on women’s component in allocations for education, water, health, housing, insurance, skill development mission Absence of women friendly approach of ITIs which will be upgraded in 29 states by the current budget 38

Need to Emphasise Women’s Component in All Mega Schemes, 2008-09 : 

Need to Emphasise Women’s Component in All Mega Schemes, 2008-09 Education Rs. 34400 crores Health Rs. 16534 crores NREGS Rs. 16000 crores Bharat Nirman Rs. 31280 crores AIDS Control Programme Rs. 969 crores Skill Development Fund Rs. 1000 crores Food Processing Rs. 290 crores Loan Waiver Package Rs. 60000 crores Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries Rs. 1000 crores Dept. Agri Research & Education Rs. 1760 crores 39

New Schemes in the Union budget 2009-2010 : 

New Schemes in the Union budget 2009-2010 Conditional Maternity Benefit scheme to provide cash directly to pregnant and lactating mothers National Mission for Empowerment of Women- 1 crore Schemes for Leadership Development of Minority Women- 7.9 crore Need for recognition of women’s centrality across all sectors 40

Demands of Women’s Groups : 

Demands of Women’s Groups Separate listing of women specific items in the budget No diversion of women’s component funds (30% of the total) in different ministries and departments. E.g. in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan & all anti-poverty programmes & schemes Transparency about allocation and utilisation of funding Right to information Inclusion of gender economists in pre-budget workshops that should be held around October so that their suggestions can be included. 41

4 categories of programmes/ schemes benefiting women : 

4 categories of programmes/ schemes benefiting women Women specific schemes where 100 % of the allocation is required to be spent on women. Pro-women schemes where at least 30% of allocation and benefits flow to women. Gender neutral schemes meant for the benefit of community as a whole where both men and women avail these benefits. The residual state specific programmes having profound effect on women’s position/ condition. 42

Panchayat Budgets : 

Panchayat Budgets Need to remove structural bottlenecks coming in the way of financial decentralisation so that PRIs are not starved of funds Demand of Rs. 1000/- crore by Ministry of PRIs for The Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana and Panchayat Empowerment Incentive Scheme for training and capacity building of elected representatives. Women’s Component 43

NIRD Study on PRI Finances : 

NIRD Study on PRI Finances To engender budgets at the Panchayat level, we need to analyse budgets scheme-wise, sector wise, category-wise and year wise with their budget estimates, revised estimates and the actual expenditure. It is also important to make thorough study of Economic Survey published by the Government of India and State Human Development Reports, State Policies for Women and allocation of resources in the State plans published by the state governments that guide programmes and budgetary allocations 44

Utilisation of Funds-MPLAD SchemeMembers of Parliament Local Area Development : 

Utilisation of Funds-MPLAD SchemeMembers of Parliament Local Area Development Each M.P. gets Rs. 2 crore under MPLADS In the areas dominated by the lower middle class and the poverty groups- demands for more schools, libraries, bridges, toilets, drains, tube wells, community centres and crematorium. In the prosperous areas, the demands are for road repairs and schools. Private sector of the economy demands banks, hospitals and shopping plaza. M.P.s and M.L.A.s have to strike balance immediate needs and long-term considerations for the constituency. 45

Unutilised Funds : 

Unutilised Funds As much as Rs. 312.51 lakh out of a total of Rs. 730 lakh allocated by the ministry of tribal Affairs to the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited (TRIFED) which markets minor forest produce to set up 1876 grain banks, remained unutilised in 1999-2000 as per 20th Report of the parliamentary Committee on welfare of the SCs and STs. Estimated 320 million people in India are facing starvation Close to 65 million tonnes of food grains are rotting in government go-downs. 46

Initiative of the Union RD Ministry : 

Initiative of the Union RD Ministry To check corruption and bring in transparency in the implementation of rural development projects sponsored by the union government, the Union Rural Development ministry had asked all District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) to keep their funds only in the nationalised banks. It has also been made compulsory for the district rural bodies to record complete details of expenditure incurred under different heads. People’s participation in monitoring the progress of implementation and the mechanism of social audit will also be introduced as part of the new strategy to cleanse the working of the DRDAs. 47

Practical & Strategic Gender Needs : 

Practical & Strategic Gender Needs Elected women in PRI, legislative bodies and parliament have played a positive role in addressing, or attempting to address, a range of practical gender needs (inadequacies in living conditions such as provision of fuel, water, healthcare and employment). their impact on strategic gender needs(affirmative action by the state, pro-active role of the employers to enhance women’s position in the economy and social movements) is not remarkable. 48

Need for Composite Programmes for women/ girls : 

Need for Composite Programmes for women/ girls There is a need for provisions in the composite programmes under education, health and rural development sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principal beneficiaries and disaggregated within the total allocation. Need to place restrictions on their re-appropriation for other purposes. 49

Need for a Proactive Role of State Commissions for Women on Budget : 

Need for a Proactive Role of State Commissions for Women on Budget Budgets garner resources through the taxation policies and allocate resources to different sections of the economy. The Budget is an important tool in the hands of state for affirmative action for improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in the development process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men and women as well as between the rich and the poor. Bottom-up budget, Green Budget, Gender Budget 50

Macro Policies & Task Force : 

Macro Policies & Task Force local and global implications of pro-poor and pro-women budgeting, alternative macro scenarios emerging out of alternative budgets and inter-linkages between gender-sensitive budgeting and women’s empowerment. Serious examining of budgets calls for greater transparency at the level of international economics to local processes of empowerment. There is a need to provide training and capacity building workshops for decision-makers in the government structures, gram sabhas, parliamentarians and audio-visual media. 51

Thank you : 

Thank you 52

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