Cooperative & Collaborative Learning : Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Ideas for Effective Classroom Practice Cooperative Learningin the Classroom : Cooperative Learningin the Classroom The presentation is based upon the model provided by Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Holubec, E. (1988). Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
Several other models exist, but the above model is perhaps the most applicable to physics teaching. Cooperative Learning v. Other forms of Learning : Cooperative Learning v. Other forms of Learning Cooperative learning is just one form of classroom/student learning structure.
Other forms include:
Individualized (criterion-based grading system)
Competitive (norm-based grading system)
Cooperative learning is perhaps the most important of the three types of learning situations, yet it is the least used (<20% time).
Collaborative learning cf. cooperative learning. What’s the difference? : What’s the difference? Cooperative Group Traditional Group
Positive interdependence No interdependence
Individual accountability No individual accountability
Heterogeneous membership Homogeneous membership
Shared leadership One appointed leader
Responsible to each other Responsibly only for self
Task & maintenance emphasized Only task emphasized
Social skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignored
Teacher observes & intervenes Teacher ignores groups
Group processing occurs No group processing
Mutual assistance Competitive Cooperative Learning:Definitions & Traits : Cooperative Learning:Definitions & Traits Cooperation -- working together to accomplish shared goals
Cooperative Learning -- the instructional use of small groups wherein students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning
shared learning goals -- desired future state in which the students demonstrate as a group and individually a mastery of the subject studied
goal structure -- specifies the ways in which students will interact with each other and the teacher during the instructional session Not all group learning is cooperative learning. : Not all group learning is cooperative learning. groups arguing over divisive conflicts and power struggles
a member sits quietly, too shy to participate
one member does the work, while the other members talk about sports
no one does the work because the one who normally works the hardest doesn’t want to be a sucker
a more talented member may come up with all the answers, dictate to the group, or work separately, ignoring other group members Effective Cooperation : Effective Cooperation does not occur by chance.
occurs when the essential components structured within each cooperative lesson are ensured.
can not be based on the assumption that all students possess good social and learning skills. What’s your role? : What’s your role? Every person has a distinct role to play. ENCOURAGER GATEKEEPER OBSERVER/RECORDER
HARMONIZER COMPROMISER FOLLOWER
STANDARD SETTER Learning Together:Essential Components : Learning Together:Essential Components Positive Interdependence : Positive Interdependence Students have two responsibilities:
learn the assigned material
ensure that all members of the group learn the material
Each student should see his or her work as benefiting each student’s effort is essential
each student makes unique contribution
Interdependence occurs when students cannot succeed unless their group members also succeed.
Structuring interdependence: common goal, joint rewards, divided resources, complimentary roles Individual Accountability : Individual Accountability Teacher must assess how much effort each member is contributing to the group’s work.
Teacher must provide feedback to groups and individual students.
Teacher must help groups avoid redundant efforts by members.
Teacher must ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome. Group Processing : Group Processing n.b: At the end of the process, students reflect to determine which member actions were helpful and which were harmful.
Students then make decisions about which actions to continue, change, or delete.
Such processing allows groups to:
focus on maintaining good working relationships.
learn cooperative skills.
provide feedback on member participation.
think at a metacognitive level as well as cognitive level.
celebrate success of the group. Social Skills : Social Skills Students must get to know and trust one another.
Students must communicate accurately and unambiguously.
Students must accept and support each other.
Students must resolve conflicts constructively. Face-to-Face Interaction : Face-to-Face Interaction Interaction occurs as a result of the positive interdependence.
To maximize opportunity for success:
keep groups small (2 - 6 students)
keep groups heterogeneous
assist students with guidelines for interaction:
acceptance, support, trust, respect
exchange of information
motivation The Advisability of Using Cooperative & Collaborative Learning : The Advisability of Using Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Works well with inquiry and constructivist approaches.
Supports multiculturalism efforts.
Promotes social development.
Assists with classroom discipline.
Provides for more than one “teacher.” Cooperative & Collaborative Learning : Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Cooperative/collaborative learning has the best and largest empirical base of any educational innovation.
Cooperative processes have been shown to advance higher-level conceptual learning.
Cooperative/collaborative learning at the high school level is well worth exploring.
A fad (top down) or a trend (bottom up)? A Working Example of C. L. : A Working Example of C. L. View the video relating to C. L.
Each student is free to write responses to questions provided under Cooperative Learning Lesson Analysis hyperlinked through Cooperative Learning in course syllabus.