Syllabus types

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The main types of syllabuses we can follow

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Current Trends in Syllabus Design   :

Current Trends in Syllabus Design

Introduction:

Introduction A clarification of terms: curriculum and syllabus The terms curriculum and syllabus are sometimes used interchangeably, sometimes differentiated, and sometimes misused and misunderstood.

Stern (1983):

Stern (1983) Two senses of ‘curriculum’ the substance of a programme of studies of an educational institution or system, such as the school curriculum, the university curriculum; the course of study or content in a particular subject, such as the mathematics curriculum or the history curriculum, similar to the ‘syllabus’ for a given subject or course of studies.

Nunan (1988:3):

Nunan (1988:3) A curriculum is concerned with making general statements about language learning, learning purpose, and experience, and the relationship between teachers and learners. A syllabus is more localized and is based on the accounts and records of what actually happens at the classroom level as teachers and students apply a curriculum to their situation.

Differences:

Differences A syllabus is a specification of what takes place in the classroom, which usually contains the aims and contents of teaching and sometimes contains suggestions of methodology. A curriculum, however, provides (1) general statements about the rationale about language, language learning and language teaching, (2) detailed specification of aims, objectives and targets learning purpose, and (3) implementation of a program.

The relationship between syllabus and materials:

The relationship between syllabus and materials In many parts of the world, language education programs are designed following a syllabus-driven approach, that is, the syllabus determines what kind of materials will be adopted and in what ways they will be exploited for the classroom teaching. In certain educational contexts, the syllabus even determines how materials should be designed in the first place.

2 Broad Categories:

2 Broad Categories Synthetic syllabi: A syllabus that selects based on language form. Analytic syllabi: A syllabus that selects based on language function.

2 other divisions :

2 other divisions Structural syllabi: A syllabus that selects based a language feature. Functional syllabi: A syllabus that selects based on what the students can do (benchmarks / standards).

Questions to ask beforehand:

Questions to ask beforehand Who will use the syllabus? Which areas of student fluency do you most need to focus on? What are the required target levels and will you mention them? How will you organize it? Function, Form, Theme, Topic ? How will you organize all this into a choherent, communicable whole? How will you sequence the items? How will you plan for recycling and revision (and assessment)?

An overview of types of syllabuses:

An overview of types of syllabuses Grammatical syllabi: The syllabus input is selected and graded according to grammatical notions of simplicity and complexity. These syllabuses introduce one item at a time and require mastery of that item before moving on to the next.

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Lexical syllabi: Lexical syllabuses identify a target vocabulary to be taught normally arranged according to levels such as the first 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 words.

Focus, focus, focus!:

Focus, focus, focus!

The Top 100 Words:

The Top 100 Words OF TO AND A IN IS IT YOU THAT HE WAS FOR ON ARE WITH AS I HIS THEY BE AT ONE HAVE THIS FROM OR HAD BY HOT WORD BUT WHAT SOME WE CAN OUT OTHER WERE ALL THERE WHEN UP USE YOUR HOW SAID AN EACH SHE WHICH DO THEIR TIME IF WILL WAY ABOUT MANY THEN THEM WRITE WOULD LIKE SO THESE HER LONG MAKE THING SEE HIM TWO HAS LOOK MORE DAY COULD GO COME DID NUMBER SOUND NO MOST PEOPLE MY OVER KNOW WATER THAN CALL FIRST WHO MAY DOWN SIDE BEEN NOW FIND THE

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Skills syllabi: Skills syllabuses are organized around the different underlying abilities that are involved in using a language for purposes such as reading, writing, listening, or speaking.

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Functional-notional syllabi : In functional-notional syllabuses, the input is selected and graded according to the communicative functions (such as requesting, complaining, suggesting, agreeing) that language learners need to perform at the end of the language programme . – benchmarks. -- Wilkens, Council of Europe

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Content syllabi: In content syllabuses, the content of language learning might be defined in terms of situations, topics, themes, or other academic or school subjects.

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Task-based syllabi: Task-based syllabuses are more concerned with the classroom processes which stimulate learning. These syllabuses consist of a list of specification of the tasks and activities that the learners will engage in in class in the target language.

Which kind of syllabus?:

Which kind of syllabus?

2.2 Current trends in syllabus design:

2.2 Current trends in syllabus design The co-existence of the old and the new The emphasis on learning process The inclusion of non-linguistic objectives in syllabus The emergence of the multi-syllabus

What’s the hype?:

What’s the hype? What’s on the blurb? carefully structured multi-syllabus approach ... systematic development of all 4 skills ... emphasis on pronunciation, study skills and vocabulary learning ... authentic and semi-authentic reading and listening practice ... language for immediate communication

What’s the hype?:

thorough, communicative practice of grammatical structures ... coverage of all the 4 skills … comprehensive coverage of the English tense system What’s the hype?

What’s the hype?:

proven multi-syllabus approach ... careful pacing ... allowance for different learning styles and teaching situations ... authentic reading and listening material ... motivating range of up-to-date topics What’s the hype?

What’s the hype?:

combines thorough language work with real life skills to give students the confidence and ability to communicate successfully in English builds on and expands students’ existing knowledge, encourages learner independence and develops fluency, accuracy and confidence What’s the hype?

References:

References Ellis, R. 2003. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Littlejohn, A. 1998. The analysis of language teaching materials: inside the Trojan Horse. In Tomlinson, B. (Ed.), Materials Development in Language Teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Masuhara, H. 1998. What do teachers really want from coursebooks? In Tomlinson, B. (Ed.), Materials Development in Language Teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McDonough, J., & Shaw, C. 2003. Materials and Methods in ELT (Second edition). Oxford: Blackwell. McGrath, I. 2002. Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching. Edinburgh University Press. Nunan, D. 1988. Syllabus Design . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards, J. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stern, H. 1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching . Oxford: Oxford University Press.