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The Role of Transfer in Determining the Phonological Core : 

The Role of Transfer in Determining the Phonological Core Edgardo F. Figueroa Jenkins, J. (2000). The role of transfer in determining the phonological core. The phonological of English as an international language.

Purpose : 

Purpose Understand the process of phonological transfer and its effects. To what extent it is realistic to expect speakers replace transferred items with other form.

Theoretical Framework : 

Theoretical Framework Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) Simplicity in L2 acquisition due to L1 and L2 similarities, but difficulty in L2 acquisition with L1 and L2 differences.

Introduction : 

Introduction Rationale: Focus on the awareness of the origins of the first language (L1) phonological transfer and its consequent implications for adult second language (L2) pronunciation. Phonological core goals: Universal teachability International intelligibility

Processes and Factors of Phonological Transfer : 

Processes and Factors of Phonological Transfer

Universal Process : 

Universal Process Universality of acquisition of linguistic constrains imposed by nature of human language and articulatory and perceptual systems’. Tendencies in interlanguage phonology using L1 acquisition techniques used by both L1 learners and English international learners (EIL). Universal Process

Tendencies : 

Tendencies Consonant cluster simplification Consonant deletion due to restricted bound manner. Cluster avoidance- Epenthesis (vowel addition). Schwa paragoge (addition to word-final obstruents). Terminal devoicing (loss of voice on certain word-final consonant). Universal Process

Developmental Process : 

Developmental Process Main lines of inquiry: L1 = L2 hypothesis. Similarities noted in the development of L2 phonology among learners from different L1 backgrounds. Developmental Process

Slide 9: 

L1 = L2 hypothesis: Terminal devoicing in L1 acquisition (overlapping process in universal and developmental process). Developmental Process

Slide 10: 

Parallels in acquisition among learners from different L1s: Errors made by nearly all learners of a given language. Differences between child’s L1 and adult’s L2: Identification of the areas children and adults have will result in a starting point for the effects of transfer process. Developmental Process

Stylistic and Contextual Factors : 

Stylistic and Contextual Factors Style Factor (degree of formality) Studies have shown that learners tend to pay more attention to form in formal contexts, but attention to content in a more informal setting. Stylistic variation in interlanguage phonology due to variability of inputs’ exposure. Stylistic and Contextual Factors

Slide 12: 

Contextual factor: Implications for the phonological core: Cross-linguist frequency of phonological items Avoidance Stylistic and Contextual Factors

Habit Formationand Automaticity : 

Habit Formationand Automaticity Habit formation in SLA. Automatic element Habit Formation and Automaticity

Cognitive Factors : 

Cognitive Factors Cognitive Factors Effects of L1-L2 similarities on L2 learners. Issues at the phonemic-phonetic level.

Notions of Ambiguity : 

Notions of Ambiguity Grice’s Cooperative Principles (“maxims”) Quantity Quality Relevance Matter Notions of Ambiguity

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Phonological transfer from learners L1 to learners L2, at a certain point, should be encouraged and taught since is beneficial for L2 learners, teachable, and intelligible.

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