In and out of school literacy presentation FINAL DRAFT

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In-School Literacy Project : 

In-School Literacy Project By: Erin Knox

Ms. Maxwell’s Reading Center : 

Ms. Maxwell’s Reading Center Reading center has… Three bookshelves with three shelves each Baskets labeled according to types of books, genre and themed topics, thus improving accessibility since they are easier to find. Ex: On the top row of book shelves there are nonfiction books Baskets labeled based on interests-This variety is important since all twenty-one student’s in Ms. Maxwell’s class have different interests and reading levels! The reading center is not organized by reading level. Instead books are placed randomly in baskets. Independent reading areas: green/blue floor mats in front of reading center, beanbag chairs, circular chair, and colored carpet. Students are able to find books that relate to their inquiries about the world or their interests (Cambourne’s Condition for Reading and Writing called Use) Types of books: Fiction, Nonfiction, Poetry, Biography/Autobiography, Fairytales Folklores Myths, Mysteries, Fantasy/Science Fiction, other books such as chapter books and books related to TV shows. Less than 20% of nonfiction books Total books=565 Two desktops are present for every 3-5 children. Computers can be used to enrich student’s literacy skills.

Multiculturalism, Independent Reading And How Do Students Find the Right Book? : 

Multiculturalism, Independent Reading And How Do Students Find the Right Book? Multiculturalism Reading center includes books about American society, features authors from different cultures/countries. Examples: Amazing Grace by Mary Hoffman and autobiographies such as Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad. Students choosing a book… The students are able to select their own books of any reading level without guidance Although Ms. Maxwell’s reading center is not divided based on reading levels, there are a variety of reading levels present! Independent Reading Time This varies depending on the student since some students finish their in-class activities sooner than others and can read independently (20 to 40 minutes every day) There is a required 20 minute independent reading time during the literacy block in the afternoon. INQUIRY MODEL!

Commercially Produced Prints : 

Commercially Produced Prints Roughly 20-39% commercially produced prints Examples Consonant Cluster posters Literacy road sign posters such as “Be Prepared to Read” on the bulletin board and near the reading center Alphabet on back wall to practice handwriting How does this apply to our reading? The environmental prints that are commercially produced are an example of immersion, which is one of Cambourne’s Conditions for Reading and Writing! Why is this an example of immersion? Because the students are surrounded by a variety of commercially produced prints and posters in the classroom encouraging them to read and write on a regular basis.

Teacher Produced Prints/Posters : 

Teacher Produced Prints/Posters Roughly 40% or more Examples: A setting poster What type of person is _______? or description posters The classroom morning and afternoon routine posters Poster about making connections to a story Poster about the writers process (sketch/plan, write, read over, reread etc) The pocket chart- This is where Ms. Maxwell places popsicle sticks when students follow one of the CLIMB rules. Calendar and class schedule for the day (changes daily). CLIMB Poster or classroom rules -“We are learning to…this is because” posters. Each color represents a subject. Alphabet on front white board with capital and lowercase letters Any posters that relate to the lesson (ex: math addition and subtraction sentence poster)

Student Created Environmental Print : 

Student Created Environmental Print Less than 20% is student created Examples: Drawings of mental images Text-to-text; Text-to-Self; Text-to-World posters Class birthdays VIP or Very Important Person descriptions on bulletin board about each student’s interests and hobbies How does this apply to our readings? The text-to-self strategy could correlate to the ideological perspective where classroom literacy practices are connected to the life experiences of the students because students had to connect their own personal experiences to the text. The text to text, text to self and text to world connections are a part of the Readers Response Model. The process of constructing these links between text and one’s experiences to other texts or outside knowledge is referred to as intertextuality.

What Was My In-School Literacy Project? : 

What Was My In-School Literacy Project? My in-school literacy project included: A mini lesson about making predictions A read aloud by Ms. Maxwell to the class. The book was called Pinkalicous by Victoria and Elizabeth Kann Writing Centers Individual silent reading time Kann, Victoria, and Elizabeth Kann. Pinkalicious. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2006. Print. What materials were assessed? Notes made on the mini white board The book called Pinkalicious-front cover, text and illustrations The students own work as well as other student’s work produced during centers. Any books read during individual silent reading time

Slide 8: 

Role of the Teacher, Students and Curriculum? Role of the Teacher: To prompt questions (in this case about “making predictions”), and encourage discussion and collaboration among students. The teacher did not play the “leader role” during the actual read aloud of Pinkalicious. Role of Curriculum: The role of the curriculum is to create a standard for what should be learned and assessed by students in regards to literacy during each grade level. Ex: One of the standard’s for second grade is students must understand differences in genres such as fiction, nonfiction and poetry. Role of the Students: To listen and actively participate by sharing insightful thoughts. Students should ask questions, thus stimulating discussion and collaboration Before Ms. Maxwell began reading Pinkalicious, she asked the students to make a prediction based on the cover, title and illustrations. Afterwards, the students collectively shared their ideas with one another. Ms. Maxwell stopped and asked the students questions about their predictions as she read. They also made predictions in their heads.

Participation: Mini Lesson : 

Participation: Mini Lesson Defining Predictions… Setting: The mini lesson and read aloud took place on the colorful gridded carpet at the front of the classroom. Students asked to define the word “prediction” and then Ms. Maxwell instructed the students to converse with their neighbors. Ex: One student claimed, “a prediction is a guess.” Discussion as a class: Instead of Ms. Maxwell telling the students her definition of a “prediction,” she asked the students to share their ideas with the class. Promoting collaboration and discussion among students correlates to Halliday’s Functional Uses of Language. The “personal function” of Halliday’s model is when language is used to express one’s thoughts and opinions. During the actual read aloud, students participated in discussion groups and were able to share their personal connections as well as thoughts and opinions about predictions. I predict that…

Participation During Read Aloud and Centers : 

Participation During Read Aloud and Centers Participation during the Read Aloud Students asked to “make several predictions” based on the title, author and illustration on the front cover. Ms. Maxwell stopped the class and reminded the students to begin their “predictions” by stating “I predict that…” Example: “I predict that the girl in the book loves pink and has a birthday party” The boy explained he made this “prediction” because the girl on the front cover has a pink cupcake in her hand and a crown on her head. Ms. Maxwell then asked the students to share their “predictions” with the class. After, Ms. Maxwell told the students that they were going to have to read the story to find out what happens. How does this relate to our reading? Sharing their ideas about predictions with other students relates to the Inquiry model because this model values and affirms the cultural knowledge and language practices students bring to the classroom. In this case, the students of various cultures are able to share their ideas with one another and compare their own ideas to others. Kann, Victoria, and Elizabeth Kann. Pinkalicious. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2006. Print.

Pictures of activities During Centers : 

Pictures of activities During Centers Students also had the option of making predictions based on the title and front cover of the book The Frog Who Would Be King. Afterwards, they read through the book to find out if their predictions were correct. Budding Reading-Students had the opportunity to read the poem “Hop and Skip” to each other. Buddy reading is a clear example of feedback which is one of Cambourne’s Conditions for Reading and Writing. How does this apply to our reading? Student’s participation in reading centers is an example of how literacy practices are socially and culturally constructed. Reading and writing events typically involve groups of readers and writers that are of different racial, ethnic and cultural groups. Instead of viewing diversity as a hindrance in the classroom, it is important that teachers as well as students view diversity as a resource because often times students respond to and create meaning in different ways.

Participation-Independent Reading Time : 

Participation-Independent Reading Time Incorporating independent reading into instruction is important because this not only allows students to grow as readers and writers, but it also invites them to utilize their background knowledge and cultural understandings to make sense of texts. After sorting through Ms. Maxwell’s extensive reading center, I decided to read Dear Annie by Judith Caseley and make predictions!

Analysis: What does it mean to “Do Literacy?” : 

Analysis: What does it mean to “Do Literacy?” To understand what a “prediction” is To identify new vocabulary words in Pinkalicious (for ex: pediatrician, rare, acute, envy, peered and reflection) To comprehend what Pinkalicious is about To gain knowledge about the overall plot of the story To actively participate in various activities during centers and to utilize skills (such as making predictions) while reading independently as well. Centers supports the idea of the INQUIRY MODEL, but goes against the INDUSTRIAL MODEL!

Analysis: The Texts : 

Analysis: The Texts The texts used were: Ms. Maxwell’s notes she wrote about predictions on her mini white board. The book Pinkalicious The students writing produced during centers (anything written in their reading journals during activities, the text on the smart board, the poem students read during buddy reading, student’s journal writing, and the words used in the vocabulary and spelling center). Any book chosen by students to read during independent reading. Who controls the texts? Ms. Maxwell controls what she writes on her mini white board during the mini lesson on “predictions.” Ms. Maxwell also chose the book Pinkalicious The students controlled and held their individual written texts produced during centers and also chose what book they read during independent reading. No one physically held the text on the white board during the mini lesson. Ms. Maxwell held the book Pinkalicious during the read aloud. The students gained access to these texts because the teacher gave them to the students.

Analysis: How do you codebreak? : 

Analysis: How do you codebreak? Codebreaking is one of the four main steps in the four resource model which is a comprehensive view of reading. Includes: text participant, a text user and critical practices where students analyze text from a socio-critical perspective. The students had to understand the symbol “…” during the mini lesson. Ms. Maxwell explained that whenever they see this symbol the students should make a prediction. Ms. Maxwell had to sound out various vocabulary words in Pinkalicious such as sorbet, pediatrician, acute, and peonies. During centers, the students had to sound out words on their own and manipulate letters when writing to ensure they had the correct spelling. Students had to also codebreak during independent reading and sound out words in order to comprehend the book they were reading. Codebreaking is important because if student’s are unable to understand a word then this may have a direct effect on their comprehension.

Analysis: Fluency and Comprehension : 

Analysis: Fluency and Comprehension The students are fluent… If the student asked questions during the read aloud If the students responded to Ms. Maxwell’s questions during the read aloud If they were able to clearly share their ideas about Pinkalicious and use certain vocabulary Ms. Maxwell’s questioning correlates directly to principle four for teaching reading and writing in the twenty-first century, claiming that literacy practices are learned through inquiry. For students, inquiry is not just seeking out the correct answer, but finding resolutions to questions and issues. Sharing of ideas during centers How Ms. Maxwell ensured her students comprehended? Ensured her students understood the definition of a “prediction” Ms. Maxwell knew students did not understand the term “prediction” when they made inaccurate predictions. When a student did not answer Ms. Maxwell’s comprehension questions in detail. If students did not participate to their best ability during centers. There was no way of assessing whether students comprehended the book they read during independent reading.

Analysis: Literacy Practices : 

Analysis: Literacy Practices Some of the literacy practices were: Reading and understanding Ms. Maxwell’s notes during the mini lesson Reading Pinkalicious Writing activities in reading journals related to making predictions Practicing reading, writing, grammar, and spelling on the smart board Free write on topic of interest Practicing vocabulary and grammar through various activities Buddy Reading Reading silently during independent reading Note: Numbers 3-7 above were the reading centers Ms. Maxwell’s classroom relates mostly to the whole language model of literacy development, claiming that reading is purposeful and authentic. These literacy practices (mini lesson, read aloud, centers and independent reading) were a reflection of balanced literacy because they incorporated shared, independent and group reading and writing.

Analysis: What Skills and Knowledge is needed? : 

Analysis: What Skills and Knowledge is needed? Skills needed… Communicating your ideas in a clear and efficient manner about Pinkalicious. Background knowledge about making predictions before hand. Thinking critically while reading a particular text and when discussing ideas with peers (this includes making connections). Recognizing the idea of “taking turns.” Affirming or contradicting one’s ideas to think critically about the subject matter. Knowledge needed… It may be helpful to have an understanding of what a “prediction” is. For students who participated in writing activities in their reading journals, free writing, and smart board activities during reading centers, it may have been helpful for them to have an understanding of grammar, key vocabulary, spelling and sentence structure.

Analysis: What should one know/need to be taught to be a successful literacy learner? : 

Analysis: What should one know/need to be taught to be a successful literacy learner? Students must know… How to recognize words and comprehend these words or “make meaning.” Students need to know how to make accurate predictions based on the title and illustrations. Students should be able to recognize when they should make predictions during their reading process. The idea of semantics relates directly to point one on this slide about making meaning. Semantics is the meaning system of language. There are three types of semantics: lexical semantics, sentential semantics and pragmatics. Students must understand all three types of semantics in order to fully comprehend what a text is saying. Students must also have an understanding of words “morphologies” in order to understand the meanings of words. Students must be taught… Reading competency by practicing reading texts of various levels, genres, and interests. How to think critically through discussing their ideas with others and by writing about these texts in their journals. How to challenge other people’s predictions, question why other students made certain predictions, and compare them to their own ideas. Students should be taught how to apply what they learned about predictions to other forms of literacy and other subject areas.

Analysis: Motivation/ Key Phrases : 

Analysis: Motivation/ Key Phrases Motivation: Students wanting to be part of the “classroom community” Typically, students do not want to be secluded from this community, but instead want to create egalitarianism among everyone. Students who are not part of the “classroom community” may not be able to communicate their ideas as easily during discussion with the entire class or their team tables. Key Phrases: When using group language during discussion time students might say “we” or “our” instead of “I.” When a student is sharing his or her own ideas without the aid of other peers the student may still use “I” instead of “we” or “our.” Students may also say phrases such as: “I think…” “I predict…” “I believe…” “I connected this to…” (or “text-to-text,” “text-to-self,” and “text-to-world”).

Out-of-School Literacy Project : 

Out-of-School Literacy Project Catholic Mass at the Newman Center

Observations: Literacy Inventory for Catholic Mass : 

Observations: Literacy Inventory for Catholic Mass Less than 20% of texts related to Catholicism in the area where the mass was held. Texts were found on the bookshelf -pamphlets, bulletins, information about mission trips, baptisms, and about the Catholic faith. I was given a booklet of Ordinary Time. I was presented with roughly 50 different texts in the hallway of the Newman Center. The area where the mass was held had very little texts. The only texts were Bibles, or notebooks people brought themselves. The priest, bishops and other leaders of the church had specific announcements written on paper. The priest also had a Bible and his notes which he used during the Homily (or the lesson/ sermon) This literacy practice relates to principle five in the six guiding principles for teaching reading and writing in the 21st century claiming that literacy practices invite readers and writers to use their background knowledge and cultural understandings to make sense of texts. I had to also rely on “cultural capital” to understand the environment around me.

Literacy Inventory Continued… : 

Literacy Inventory Continued… Texts on Walls Texts arranged in an orderly manner along the walls on posters Texts on Bookshelves On the bookshelves, the pamphlets, bulletins and other resources were stacked neatly on the shelves and they were not ordered alphabetically or labeled. They were categorized by topics such as: What is the Catholic faith? or Mission Trips. On the bookshelves these resources were not stored in bins, racks or wedges. The bookshelf was somewhat accessible to all members and visitors of the church. I felt that the bookshelf had too much information crammed on it and it was overwhelming to take in all the information at once. In the actual room where the mass took place, the texts were not arranged in any particular fashion because each person had different texts which they controlled themselves. The types of areas provided where people can read independently are: Chairs outside of the main area where the mass was held Individual chairs inside the area where they have mass. Example of a pamphlet found on the bookshelf

Literacy Inventory Continued… : 

Literacy Inventory Continued… Texts No texts that had to be “sorted through” during the actual mass No texts were read independently. Instead all texts were read as a congregation, or simply stated by the congregation if the texts were memorized. Texts were silently read at times as well. Multiculturalism was not displayed by very many texts in the area where the mass was held. While observing the various cultures of people who attended the Newman Center, I wondered if their texts (Bibles in particular) were written in different languages. Multiculturalism continued: One of the songs/ hymns in the booklet of Ordinary Time was written in English and an African dialect. Singing the hymn in African and then switching to English is an example of codeswitching. Codeswitching is beneficial for people who speak different languages because it can enrich one’s comprehension of the text. Commercially produced prints= less than 20%, prints produced by church= 20-39%, prints produced by youth ministry= less than 20% Codeswitching!

Literacy Inventory Continued… : 

Literacy Inventory Continued… Types of materials assessed… The Bible, the booklet of Ordinary Time, the pamphlets and other brochures outside of the area where the mass was held, and any notes needed to make announcements or give the Homily. What was the role of the priest? His role was to guide the congregation through mass and instruct the congregation through tasks such as the Penitential Rite (a memorized prayer). What was the role of the congregation? To listen to the priest as well as the Parish staff Sing the hymns and other songs Participate in the prayers of the faithful Read along in their Bibles during the prayers and Homily Participate in saying the memorized prayers as a congregation. What was the role of the texts (mainly the Bible)? To use as a guide during the Homily and to share about the Catholic faith. The Bible also provides a standard so everyone could easily follow along while reading passages. I can personally say after being introduced to Catholicism and after attending a Catholic mass, that literacy practices are learned through inquiry! When I began studying the booklet of Ordinary Time I was very uncertain of many of the terms and the process of a Catholic mass. Therefore before the service began, I decided to “inquire” and seek out resolutions to some of my questions.

Booklet of Mass Schedule AKA Booklet of Ordinary Time : 

Booklet of Mass Schedule AKA Booklet of Ordinary Time This booklet has the schedules for five Sundays in the months of September and October during Ordinary time. Ordinary time lasted from September 5th-October 8th. The liturgical year (or the Christian year), consists of the cycle of seasons in the Catholic church which determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read. Liturgical colors typically appear in connection with different seasons of the year. For example, during Ordinary time the priest normally wears a green robe and this color changes according to the season. You can faintly see this in the picture. Booklet also includes different hymns/songs, prayers and readings that must be recited for each Sunday. After talking and “inquiring” with my friend and the priest before the service, I was able to gain knowledge about some of the terminology and order of events within the booklet of Ordinary time.

Analysis: What does it mean to do literacy in this community? : 

Analysis: What does it mean to do literacy in this community? To do literacy at The Newman Center means… To participate in the memorized prayers To listen when the parish staff gives the readings To listen when the priest gives the Homily Participate in songs/ hymns Participate in the prayers of the faithful It also means to be able to understand Catholic practices and terminology/vocabulary. The fact that the congregation of the “church” recited memorized prayers, sang songs and said statements in unison at specific times reveals that literacy practices are socially and culturally constructed. Literacy includes learning about how to be socialized into particular social practices in particular settings.

Analysis: The Texts : 

Analysis: The Texts What are the texts and who do people get access to them? The Bible-congregation brings their own typically, no extra Bibles are provided. Any notes of the priests or parish staff when giving announcements or the Homily- congregation does not have access to these. The booklet of Ordinary Time were given out at the entrance door to the main area where the mass was held. Brochures, Pamphlets and other informational guides about Catholicism were available to anyone on a bookshelf Notes taken by congregation during Homily-people have access to their own notes because they wrote them. Hymnals of choir members-Only choir members have access to hymnals, but copies of the hymns are found in the booklet for Ordinary Time What texts were written? In this literacy community all the texts above were read. The only texts written were notes taken by the congregation during the Homily. Controller of texts? The priest and other parish staff. Note: The congregation has access to other texts that are different from the texts the priest, parish staff and choir obtain Why do people engage in this literacy practice? The primary reason these people engage in this literacy practice is to make sense out of their worlds, their existence, and God. Thus, this literacy practice is “purposeful.” Language practices reflecting power and politics- we define others as well as ourselves and typically make judgments based on the persons social class and status. Since the priest is someone with a high status, typically people respect what he says because of his authority.

Analysis: How do you codebreak? : 

Analysis: How do you codebreak? Codebreaking is part of the four-resource model based on the critical theory. In order to read proficiently and effectively, readers must interact with the text by codebreaking. One codebreaks by sounding out certain words, abbreviations, letters and other symbols. I had to codebreak often when deciphering the hymns and prayers in the booklet of Ordinary Time. I knew what certain words meant by looking at the context of the sentence around a specific word and breaking down the context of each word and studying it’s roots.

Analysis: What is the key vocabulary in this literacy community? : 

Analysis: What is the key vocabulary in this literacy community? Liturgy-a form of public worship or a ritual Eucharist-the sacrament of Holy Communion; the sacrifice of the Mass; the Lord's Supper. Acclamation-a brief responsive chant in while singing during a Catholic mass Rite-a formal or ceremonial act Parish-an ecclesiastical district having its own church and member of the clergy. Transubstantiation-the changing of the elements of the bread and wine, when they are consecrated in the Eucharist, into the body and blood of Christ Communion-the act of taking the bread and wine Ordinary Time- a season of the liturgical calendar

Analysis: Fluency and Comprehension : 

Analysis: Fluency and Comprehension A person is fluent in this literacy community if… Are able to actively participate in the responding to the priests statements/prayers Recite the prayers or other statements without reading from the booklet of Ordinary time Understand vocabulary terms that relate to Catholicism ex: liturgy Sing hymns without reading from the booklet of Ordinary Time One comprehends in a literacy community by… By being exposed to this environment for a certain period of time or engaging in the literacy practice often. People know when one has not comprehended if they are not able to recite any of the memorized prayers, respond to any of the priests statements or prayers or sing any of the hymns without reading the booklet of Ordinary Time. After listening to the congregation who was fluent in this literacy practice, I began to actively participate. This is an example of demonstration which is one of Cambourne’s Conditions for Learning. Demonstration is when one has the opportunity to see other people read, write or speak for meaningful reasons and then follows their lead.

Analysis: What are the literacy practices in this literacy community? : 

Analysis: What are the literacy practices in this literacy community? Reading from the Bible Reading from the booklet of Ordinary Time Reading lyrics to hymns Writing notes during the Homily Participating in reciting prayers and other statements after the priest Participating in the prayers of the faithful

Analysis: What are the skills necessary to be successful? What prior knowledge is needed? : 

Analysis: What are the skills necessary to be successful? What prior knowledge is needed? Skills needed: Responding to the priest at appropriate times Have prayers, hymns and all other saying memorized Know and understand key vocabulary Know and understand the process of how a Catholic mass works. Have background knowledge about the Catholic faith in general. Understand the idea of turn taking especially when reciting prayers and other statements between the congregation and the priest. Prior knowledge needed: An understanding of what Catholicism is and how it is different from my own faith. Knowledge of others personal experiences in regards to Catholicism who were not raised Catholic. An understanding of the order of a Catholic mass service as well as baptism and communion.

Analysis: What does one need to know and be taught to be a successful literacy learner? : 

Analysis: What does one need to know and be taught to be a successful literacy learner? One needs to know… How to accept other religious ideas that may differ from their own religion. Personally, I did not know anything about Catholicism prior to this project and as a literacy learner I had to set aside by non-denominational Christian beliefs and learn how to accept the differences found within the Catholic faith. What one needs to be taught? Reading competency and verbal competency How to decipher a variety of different texts and then be able to compare these texts to your own religious texts During this literacy practice I had to “disrupt the commonplace (see everyday through new lenses) and interrogate multiple perspectives (imagine yourself in the shoes of others).” When attending this literacy event I had to do both of these. I had to view “everyday” church through the eyes of a Catholic instead of a nondenominational Christian. Next, I had to imagine what it would be like to be Catholic.

Analysis: How should these practices be taught? : 

Analysis: How should these practices be taught? These practices should be taught by… Thinking critically about how the Catholic faith differs in relation to one’s own faith can be taught by studying and researching the Catholic faith in more detail. This can be done individually, or by talking with other people who are Catholic. Reading competency can be taught by exposing one to texts related to Catholicism regularly. How to decipher a variety of different texts and then be able to compare these texts to your own religious texts- can be taught by studying both texts in close detail.

Analysis: Motivation and Common Phrases said if participated in this Literacy practice : 

Analysis: Motivation and Common Phrases said if participated in this Literacy practice Motivation: The need or longing to be part of a community or the congregation. Simply wanting to “fit in” and not stand out The need or longing for egalitarianism or equality. To learn more about Catholicism in general in comparison to one’s own faith. Common words/ phrases: Mass Liturgy Eucharist Rite Ordinary Time Parish Sacraments Communion Priests

Juxtaposition between in and out of school literacy practices : 

Juxtaposition between in and out of school literacy practices Both my in-school literacy project and out of school literacy project relied heavily on “codebreaking.” Just as the students in Ms. Maxwell’s classroom had to “codebreak” in order to understand certain parts of the text in Pinkalicious, I had to “codebreak” when deciphering the booklet of Ordinary time during the Catholic mass.

Citations : 

Citations Case, Lane Amnity Publications: Literacy Enrichment for All Ages. AMITY, 2008. Web. 16 Oct. 2010 <http://www.amity publications.com/index.html>. Kann, Victoria, and Elizabeth Kann. Pinkalicious. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2006. Print. The Newman Catholic Center & Parish. The Newman Catholic Center, 2008. Web. 15 Oct. 2010 <http://www.newman-chapelhill.org/index.php>. Note: All other photographs were taken on my own camera.

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