Building Vocabulary- OWS, Syn&Ant and Idioms&Phrases

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Submitted To : MR. PARVEEN KUMAR Submitted By: VIKRANTI SAXENA (027) ANKITA SRIVASTAVA (073) ANVITA MISHRA (074)

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION SYNONYMS ANTONYMS IDIOMS PHRASES

INTRODUCTION Building One’s Vocabulary:

INTRODUCTION Building One’s Vocabulary Benefits : Enhances the ability to communicate effectively Causes better understanding Make us more informed and involved Strengthens the ability to grasp ideas Establishes thoughts more logically and incisively Boosts the powers of persuasion Makes effective first impressions

1. One Word Substitution:

1. One Word Substitution Replaces a phrase or a clause without creating any ambiguity in their meaning Essential part of one’s vocabulary Hold importance in writing and speaking precisely Makes the language * more flowery * more comprehendible Proves handy in business communication involving limitation of time and space

Some examples :- One who looks at the brighter side of things Optimist One who loves mankind Philanthropist One who is present everywhere Omnipresent One who copies from other writers Plagiarist One who cannot be corrected Incorrigible One who believes in God Theist Celebration of a hundredth year Centenary A speech delivered without any prior preparation Extempore A thing no longer in use Obsolete A letter, poem etc. whose author is unknown Anonymous :

Some examples :- One who looks at the brighter side of things Optimist One who loves mankind Philanthropist One who is present everywhere Omnipresent One who copies from other writers Plagiarist One who cannot be corrected Incorrigible One who believes in God Theist Celebration of a hundredth year Centenary A speech delivered without any prior preparation Extempore A thing no longer in use Obsolete A letter, poem etc. whose author is unknown Anonymous

2. Synonyms:

2. Synonyms Words with the same or similar meaning of another word . Also known as METONYM and POECILONYM . Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS. The state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY . Comes from the ancient Greek word syn (“with”) and onoma (“name”).

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Can be any part of speech. Both words must be same part of speech . Some examples :- Verb * Buy and Purchase Adjective * Big and Large Adverb * Quickly and Speedily Prepositions * On and Upon

3. Antonyms:

3. Antonyms Words having opposite meaning to other words. Refers to the word that is completely different from another one. Also called as opposites . Comes from the ancient Greek word anti (“opposite”) and onoma (“name”).

Categories of Antonyms ::

Categories of Antonyms : Graded antonyms : Words deal with the levels of the meaning of the words. E.g. – Fat and Skinny Young and Old Complementary antonyms : Words have no middle ground. E.g. – Push and Pull Pass and Fail Relational antonyms : Words exist in pair. E.g. – Doctor and Patient Above and Below

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4. What are Idioms ? A phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. It is figurative and not literal. LITERAL – Used in formal spoken English implying the dictionary meaning. FIGURATIVE – An informal speech providing an imagery. Their origination in different languages is culture based.

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Idioms 1. Cut corners 2. The last straw 3. A storm in a teacup 4. Throw caution to the wind 5. Sit on the fence 6. Miss the boat 7 . Cost an arm and a leg 8. In the soup 9. To make a beeline for something 10. Feeling a bit under the weather 11. The gift of gab 12. Let the cat of the bag 13. For a rainy day 14. A different kettle of fish 15. A finger in every pie 16. To fly off the handle 17. Full of beans 18. A cock and bull story 19. Blood curdling 20. Throw in the towel Something done badly to save money The last of a series of disappointments A fuss about something insignificant To take a risk Not wanting to make a decision Missing a chance To be very expensive In trouble To go straight to it (kitchen for example) Feeling ill A talent for talking persuasively Reveal a secret For difficult situation To be a different person Involvement in every situation To become very angry Lively and cheerful Unbelievable story Horrifying To give up something Meanings List of Examples :

5. What are Phrases ?:

5. What are Phrases ? A combination of words (expression) that is used like a verb and consist of an verb and adverb or preposition. In many cases the meaning of phrase is self evident. E.g. – “go in” ; “run away with” ; “fall off” Sometimes phrasal verbs are idiomatic i.e. the literal meaning is not applicable. E.g. – “to put up with” is to tolerate ; “to butter up” is to flatter

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Phrases are explained with some examples and their usage :- She knew she was wrong but she just wouldn’t back down (to abandon your claim, demands, opinions); If you back somebody up you giving them support; Backing up data means having a copy of it somewhere else. To get carried off is to lose control of their emotions; To c arry off a prize is to win it. To do away with something is to abolish it; To do up laces, buttons etc. is to fasten them; To do up a room is to redecorate it. To draw back from something is to decide against it at the last moment; If you are encouraging a person to talk then you are drawing them out ; When nights are drawing in it means they are getting shorter.

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To stand by someone is to support them in case of difficult situation; If someone stands by while something bad is happening the are not taking any action; To take a stand for a cause is to make your opinion clear about it; To stand in for someone is to fill in their place when they are unavailable; To stand out is to be noticeable. To take after someone is to resemble them; To take down a building you demolish it; To take someone in is to fool them or deceive them; To take something over is to assume control; To take to someone or something you become fond of them or it. To work off something unwanted is to get rid of them; To work on someone is to try to influence them; To work something out is to calculate it; To work up an appetite is to create or stimulate it. Look down on is to despise someone; Look forward to something is to anticipate the event; Look up to someone is to respect them.

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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