Accommodating the Exceptional Learner in Regular Classes : D.Wright 1 Accommodating the Exceptional Learner in Regular Classes The Exceptional Learner Written By: Deborah Wright Next Characteristics of children with Learning Disabilities. : D.Wright 2 Characteristics of children with Learning Disabilities. Next WARNING SIGNS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN : D.Wright 3 WARNING SIGNS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Although children's growth patterns vary among individuals and within individuals, uneven development or significant delays in development can signal the presence of LD. It is important to keep in mind that the behaviors listed below must persist over time to be considered warning signs. Any child may occasionally exhibit one or two of these behaviors in the course of normal development Next Back Language : D.Wright 4 Language Slow development in speaking words or sentences
Difficulty learning new words
Difficulty following simple directions
Difficulty understanding questions
Difficulty expressing wants and desires
Difficulty rhyming words
Lack of interest in story telling
Poor balance Next Back Language : D.Wright 5 Language Difficulty manipulating small objects
Awkwardness with running, jumping, or climbing
Trouble learning to tie shoes, button shirts, or perform other self-help activities
Avoidance of drawing or tracing
Trouble memorizing the alphabet or days of the week
Poor memory for what should be routine (everyday) procedures
Difficulty with cause and effect, sequencing, and counting
Difficulty with basic concepts such as size, shape, color Next Back Attention : D.Wright 6 Attention High distractibility
Unusual restlessness (hyperactivity)
Difficulty staying on task
Difficulty changing activities
Constant repetition of an idea, inability to move on to a new idea (perseveration) Next Back Social Behavior : D.Wright 7 Social Behavior Trouble interacting with others, playing alone
Prone to sudden and extreme mood changes
Hard to manage, has temper tantrums Next Back WARNING SIGNS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN : D.Wright 8 WARNING SIGNS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Language/Mathematics
Slow learning of the correspondence of sound to letter.
Consistent errors in reading or spelling
Difficulty remembering basic sight words
Inability to retell a story in sequence
Trouble learning to tell time or count money Confusion of math signs (+, -, x, /, =)
Transposition of number sequences
Trouble memorizing math facts
Trouble with place value
Difficulty remembering the steps of mathematic operations such as long division Next Back Motor Skills : D.Wright 9 Motor Skills Poor coordination, or awkwardness
Difficulty copying from chalkboard
Difficulty aligning columns (math* )
Poor handwriting Next Back Attention / Organization : D.Wright 10 Attention / Organization Difficulty concentrating or focusing on a task
Difficulty finishing work on time
Inability to follow multiple directions
Rejection of new concepts, or changes in routine Difficulty concentrating or focusing on a task
Difficulty finishing work on time
Inability to follow multiple directions Next Back Social Behavior : D.Wright 11 Social Behavior Difficulty understanding facial expressions or gestures
Difficulty understanding social situations
Tendency to misinterpret behavior of peers and/or adults
Apparent lack of "common sense" Next Back WARNING SIGNS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN : D.Wright 12 WARNING SIGNS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Warning signs of learning disabilities in secondary school students include the following, which, should occur as a pattern of behaviors, to a significant degree, and over time. Next Back Language/Mathematics/Social Studies : D.Wright 13 Language/Mathematics/Social Studies Avoidance of reading and writing
Tendency to misread information
Poor reading comprehension
Difficulty understanding subject area textbooks
Trouble with open-ended questions
Continued poor spelling
Poor grasp of abstract concepts
Difficulty in learning foreign language Poor skills in writing essays
Poor ability to apply math skills
Difficulty staying organized
Trouble with test formats such as multiple choice
Slow work pace in class and in testing situations
Poor note taking skills
Poor ability to proofread or double check work Next Back Social Behavior : D.Wright 14 Social Behavior Difficulty accepting criticism
Difficulty seeking or giving feedback
Problems negotiating or advocating for oneself
Difficulty resisting peer pressure
Difficulty understanding another person's perspectives Next Back CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH COMMUNICATION DISORDERS? : D.Wright 15 CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH COMMUNICATION DISORDERS? A child with speech or language delays may present a variety of characteristics including the inability to follow directions, slow and incomprehensible speech, and pronounced difficulties in syntax and articulation.
Typical voice disorders include hoarseness, breathiness, or sudden breaks in loudness or pitch.
A child with a possible hearing problem may appear to strain to hear, ask to have questions repeated before giving Next Back CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH COMMUNICATION DISORDERS? : D.Wright 16 CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH COMMUNICATION DISORDERS? the right answer, demonstrate speech inaccuracies (especially dropping the beginnings and endings of words), or exhibit confusion during discussion.
Students who speak dialects different from standard English may have communication problems that represent either language differences or, in more severe instances, language disorders. Next Back Signs and Symptoms of Potential Eye Problems : D.Wright 17 Signs and Symptoms of Potential Eye Problems What are the symptoms of eye problems in children? blurred vision
eyes turn in or out and do not focus
redness in the eyes The following are possible signs and symptoms of potential eye problems. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include: Next Back Signs and Symptoms of Potential Eye Problems : D.Wright 18 Signs and Symptoms of Potential Eye Problems swelling of the eyes
eyes are sensitive to light
eyes appear to bulge
rubs eyes excessively Next Back has difficulty reading
tilts head to see
has difficulty in performing "close up" tasks
“jiggly" or dancing eyes
abnormal-sized eyes (too large or too small)
droopy eyelid Curriculum Modification : D.Wright 19 Curriculum Modification can participate in learning activities in the same manner and at the same time as the other students
can participate in assessment activities, including access through the use of different formats or times
have access to additional material to reinforce learning, if necessary
have access to additional material to extend learning, if possible
have access to learning materials and equipment that are age appropriate
have opportunities to work with other students. The students should have the curriculum modified in such a way that they: Next Back Teaching Students How to Study and How to Organize their Work : D.Wright 20 Teaching Students How to Study and How to Organize their Work Provide students with a sample chart for planning their study time at home.
Encourage students to evaluate the effectiveness of their own study habits.
Teach the RAP study method: READ - ASK yourself what you read - PUT it in your own words. Teach how to create study notes. Pre-lesson outlines make excellent study guides, providing the stimuli for fact reviews. The use of recipe cards with topics, subtopics, important facts and questions is an efficient study method.
Teach the use of mnemonic devices, e.g., categorization, chunking, visual imagery, association, diagrams, verbal rehearsal, acronyms, funny sentences, enumerating, intensity of attention - highlights, rhythm. Next Back Organization of Work : D.Wright 21 Organization of Work Calendar / Timetable: Post a weekly/ monthly timetable. Record dates for completion of assignments, tests, etc.
Personal Assignment Record: Each student can record each assignment as it is given.
Task Analysis: Break major assignments into smaller sections so that students see a workable approach to the task.
Teach visualization of the finished product before starting an assignment and model thinking out loud" about what is needed to accomplish the task. Next Back Students Who Are Slower Learners : D.Wright 22 Students Who Are Slower Learners gross and fine motor skills
social skills, including personal independence and social responsibility
reasoning and problem solving skills
memory. Some students may require specific instruction in these areas: Next Back Classroom Strategies : D.Wright 23 Classroom Strategies support verbal communication with body language, such as using gestures (pointing, air drawing size or shape), and changing voice quality
use verbal labels for objects and actions in the classroom, hall, and playground
use short, clear phrases
motivate learning with the use of praise and time with favorite activities help the student interact with other students in the class
introduce new concepts slowly; use many examples; allow lots of practice time
teach concepts in context to make ideas 'real‘
teach the same concepts and skills in many situations so skills are generalized Next Back Expressive Language : D.Wright 24 Expressive Language make sure the students have chances to use language with their peers
teach the student appropriate ways to express needs and frustrations
allow extra time for the student to respond to a question or situation, as information retrieval and processing may be slower than usual encourage appropriate responses and learning with motivators, such as praise and time with favorite activities Next Back Classroom Strategies continue : D.Wright 25 Classroom Strategies continue Academic Skills
use learning aids, e.g., number lines, calculators, counters, and tape recorders
involve the student in tasks which have a good probability of success, e.g., in cooperative learning
reduce the amount of written work by providing assignments, such as fill in the blanks
use one-step instructions and check frequently for understanding
prepare alternative activities focusing on basic skills, e.g., list making
use concrete materials whenever possible, but keep materials age appropriate
focus on making small achievable gains Social Skills
establish well defined classroom routines
plan cues and reinforcers so the student progresses constantly towards independence
assign a buddy to assist the student in learning class and playground routines
provide consistent and firm expectations with natural consequences
make sure students can imitate and practice socially appropriate skills
teach appropriate ways of getting help and/or getting attention Next Back Students With Language Problems : D.Wright 26 Students With Language Problems word meaning and the ability to give a word attributes such as comparison, size and color
syntax, i.e., sequencing words, sentence structure
understanding cause and effect relationships
conversation, e.g., clarity in explaining ideas A student with a language impairment will have difficulties with the following skills in spoken and/or written language: Metalinguistics (e.g., breaking words into syllables)
Sequencing the sounds in words
hearing changes in the sequence of sounds in words distinguishing target sounds expressive language production, such as:
correct grammar (e.g., plurals, tenses, possessives)
maintaining a clear, coherent, logical, and relevant conversation Processing and understanding linguistic information. This may include: Auditory perception and
analytical skills, such as: Next Back Classroom Strategies : D.Wright 27 Classroom Strategies Use these strategies in the classroom, and also in the hall, and playground, if possible:
Model correct language by identifying a specific target, e.g., irregular past tense, and reflecting it back to the student after every incorrect use.
Student: "I writed my assignment" or "I drawed the diagram."
Teacher: "Oh, you wrote the assignment" or "I see, you drew the diagram."
Expand on the student's utterance by adding form, content and attributes.
Student: " I saw the fight" or "They're fighting." Next Back Classroom Strategies : D.Wright 28 Classroom Strategies Teacher: "Where did you see the fight?" or "It's not a serious, violent fight."
Discuss the listeners' need for clarity, so the student may become more aware of the skills involved in providing complete information. Barrier activities are useful exercises for students of any age. One barrier activity is to have the student describe an item to someone who doesn't know what it is, e.g., an umbrella, a calendar, a map, a baseball glove, a toaster.
Discuss word associations, categories, similarities and differences, synonyms and antonyms, attributes and multiple meanings. Use joke books and dictionaries. Make word lists. Examine homonyms. Discuss abstract vocabulary, e.g., feelings, values, time. continue Next Back Classroom Strategies : D.Wright 29 Classroom Strategies Focus on listening skills. The students should listen carefully to a comment or story and associate what is said with their own experiences. They can listen for implied meaning and significant clues. They can mentally summarize what the speaker is saying and listen for direction-changing words, such as 'but'. continue Next Back Consider these ideas when you are teaching: : D.Wright 30 Consider these ideas when you are teaching: add visual clues to verbal instructions (gestures, pictures)
highlight key words on a page with written instructions
keep your language familiar and predictable
make sure the students are paying attention. Are they looking at you?
ask students to repeat your instructions in their own words Give instructions in the right sequence. For example, don't say:"Take the attendance before you start your group work, but be sure to get the books you need first."
Instead say: "Get the books you need, then take attendance, and then you can start your group work." Next Back Slide 31: D.Wright 31 REFERENCES
National Institutes of Health. (1999). Brief Notes on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents. Retrieved September 5, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/childnotes.cfm.
Lue, M. S. (2001). A survey of communication disorders for the classroom teacher. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Oyer, H. J., Crowe, B., & Haas, W. H. (1987). Speech, Language, and Hearing Disorders: A Guide for the Teacher. Boston: Little, Brown.
Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M. (2000). Exceptional learners: Introduction to special education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Harris, K. R., & Graham, S., (1999). Programmatic intervention research: Illustrations from the evolution of self-regulated strategy development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22(4), 251-262.
Leonard, C. M. (2001). Imaging brain structure in children: Differentiating language disability and reading disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 158-176.
Mercer, C. D. (1997). Students with learning disabilities (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Merrill.
Raskind, W. H. (2001). Current understanding of the genetic basis of reading and spelling disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 141-157.
VanTassel-Baska, J. (1992). "Planning effective curriculum for gifted learners." Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
Algozzine, B., Ruhl, K., & Ramsey, R. (1991). "Behaviorally disordered? Assessment for identification and instruction." Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children. (ED No. 333660). Stock No. P339.
Riley, Wendy (2007), Illustrator in Microsoft Office 2003, The School of Education
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