Sun Tzu - The Art of War

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A 45 minutes presentation on Sun Tzu's The Art of War .... with notes for each slide.

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SUN TZUSCOPE : 

1 SUN TZUSCOPE Introduction Biographical Sketch Salient Features of His Ideas and Strategies Impact of His Ideas on Conduct of War Validity of His Ideas and Doctrine to Modern Times Place in History

Slide 2: 

2 Introduction “Supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting”

Slide 3: 

3

Sequence : 

4 Sequence Introduction Biographical Sketch Salient Features of His Ideas and Strategies Impact of His Ideas on Conduct of War Validity of His Ideas and Doctrine to Modern Times Place in History Adnan Shahzad

Slide 5: 

5

Biographical Sketch : 

6 Biographical Sketch Names : Sun Tzu, Sun Wu, Sun Zi Name means : Master Sun Born : 5th Century BC Birthplace : Ch’i State, China Death : Before 473 BC Best known for : The Art of War

Biographical Sketch : 

7 King Ho Lu Biographical Sketch

Biographical Sketch : 

8 Biographical Sketch If the words of command are not clear and distinct, or if the instructions are not understood, it is the mistake of general If the orders are clear but the soldiers disobey, it is the fault of their officers Having once received his majesty’s commission to be general of these troops, there are certain commands, which in this capacity, I am unable to accept

Biographical Sketch : 

9 Biographical Sketch CH’I WU CH’U TS’IN

Slide 10: 

10 PING FA

Sun Tzu - Outside China : 

11 Sun Tzu - Outside China Japan – 8th Century AD Paris – 1782 Translations : German Russian Italian First English Translation - 1905

Doctrine of Sun Tzu : 

12 Doctrine of Sun Tzu Prepare adequate defences to repel any attack Seek ways to defeat the enemy without engaging him in battle Follow the enemy situation in order to decide on battle

Slide 13: 

13 Salient Features

Ideas and Strategies : 

14 Ideas and Strategies “The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life or death, a road to survival or to ruin. Hence it is mandatory that it be thoroughly studied.” Sun Tzu

Ideas and Strategies : 

15 Ideas and Strategies Appraisals Waging War Offensive Strategy Dispositions Energy Weaknesses and Strengths Manoeuvre Nine Variables Marches Terrain Nine Grounds Act by Fire Secret Agents

Appraisals : 

16 Appraisals Moral Law Weather Terrain Commander Doctrine

Appraisals : 

17 Appraisals Moral Law Weather Terrain Commander Doctrine To be in complete harmony with their leader, so that they accompany him in life unto death, without fear of mortal perils

Appraisals : 

18 Appraisals Moral Law Weather Terrain Commander Doctrine Interaction of natural forces; the effects of winter’s cold and summer’s heat and the conduct of military operations accordingly

Appraisals : 

19 Appraisals Moral Law Weather Terrain Commander Doctrine Ground – Ease or Difficulty Distances – Great or Small Places – Dangerous or Secure Lands – Open or Constricted Chances – Life or Death

Appraisals : 

20 Appraisals Moral Law Weather Terrain Commander Doctrine Wisdom Sincerity Humanity Courage Firmness

Appraisals : 

21 Appraisals Moral Law Weather Terrain Commander Doctrine Organization & Control Assignment of appropriate ranks to officers Maintenance of supply routes Provision of principal items used by army

Waging War : 

22 Waging War “Victory is the main object in war. If this is prolonged, weapons are blunted and morale is depressed”

Waging War : 

23 Waging War No country has ever benefited from prolonged war Speed and swiftness is the essence of victory Rapidity is of supreme importance in bringing it to a close

Waging War : 

24 Waging War “Treat your captives well and care for them”

Offensive Strategy : 

25 Offensive Strategy All the available resources of the state should be used to wage war against the enemy It is important to attack enemy’s strategy and plans. Next to disrupt his alliances and then to attack his army The best policy is to take a state intact; to ruin it is inferior to this

Offensive Strategy : 

26 Offensive Strategy Those skilled in war subdue the enemy without fighting. They capture his cities without assaulting them and over throw his state without protracted operations Know the enemy and know yourself; in hundred battles you will never be in danger

Dispositions : 

27 Dispositions Invincibility lies in defence; the possibility of victory in attack A victorious army wins its victories before seeking battle; an army destined to defeat, fights in the hope of winning Those skilled in war, cultivate humanity and justice, and preserve laws and therefore formulate victorious policies

Energy : 

28 Energy To control many is the same as to control few through formations and signals When the torrential water tosses the rocks, it is because of its momentum When the strike of a hawk breaks the body of its prey, it is because of its timing Force, influence and authority which is exercised in war by the commander

Energy : 

29 Energy Momentum of one skilled in war is overwhelming, and his attack precisely regulated His potential is that of a fully drawn crossbow; his timing, the release of the trigger

Weaknesses & Strengths : 

30 Weaknesses & Strengths If enemy is at ease, be able to exhaust him If enemy is well fed, be able to starve him If enemy is settled, be able to move him Appear at places to which enemy must rush to defend Rush to places where he least expects

Weaknesses & Strengths : 

31 Weaknesses & Strengths An army is like water; just as flowing water avoids heights and hastens to the lowlands, so an army avoids the enemy strength and strikes the weakness One able to gain victory by modifying his tactics in accordance with the enemy situation, may be said to be divine

Manoeuvre : 

32 Manoeuvre Speed and diversion Dispersion and concentration of force to achieve deception Attack when enemy morale is low Do not attack when enemy is organized and advancing

Manoeuvre : 

33 Manoeuvre “He who knows the art of the direct and the indirect approach will be victorious”

The Nine Variables : 

34 The Nine Variables Not to encamp in low lying ground On communicating ground, unite with your allies On isolated ground, do not linger On enclosed ground, resourcefulness is needed On death ground, fight

The Nine Variables : 

35 The Nine Variables Some roads, not to follow Some troops, not to strike Some cities, not to assault Some grounds, not to be contested

Marches : 

36 Marches Encamp on high ground Fight downhill When attacking, let half the enemy cross the river and then cut him to size

Marches : 

37 Marches After crossing a river move away quickly Prefer high ground and take position upstream Keep height to your rear and right and battle in the front

Marches : 

38 Marches “He who lacks foresight and under estimates his enemy will surely be captured by him”

Terrains : 

39 Terrains Accessible Land – Enemy can traverse with equal ease Entrapping Land – Easy to get out but difficult to return Indecisive Land – Ground equally disadvantageous to both sides

Terrains : 

40 Terrains Constricted Land – Block the passes and await the enemy Precipitous Land– Take position on the sunny heights and await the enemy Distant Land – When at a distance from the enemy of equal strength, it is difficult to provoke battle and unprofitable to engage him in his chosen position

Nine Grounds : 

41 Nine Grounds Dispersive Ground – When a feudal lord fights in his own territory Frontier Ground – When a shallow penetration has been made into enemy territory Key Ground – Equally advantageous for both sides Communicating Ground – Equally accessible for both sides Focal Ground – When a state is enclosed by three other states

Nine Grounds : 

42 Nine Grounds Serious Ground – When penetrated deep into hostile territory Difficult Ground – Hard places like swamps, marshlands, mountains, forests etc Encircled Ground – Where access is constricted and even small enemy force can strike Death Ground – Where army fights with the courage of desperation

Act by Fire : 

43 Act by Fire Hide in inaccessible places Travel lightly & pay no attention to weather Exhaust the enemy while pursuing

Act by Fire : 

44 Act by Fire Camouflage well Vary your locations frequently Learn to move at night

Secret Agents : 

45 Secret Agents Foreknowledge cannot be obtained from spirits, nor from gods, nor by analogy with past events, nor from calculations. It must be obtained from men who know the enemy situation

Secret Agents : 

46 Secret Agents Native Agents – Local inhabitants of the area Inside Agents – Grieved or rejected enemy officials Doubled Agents – Enemy agents used through heavy bribes Expendable Agents – Own agents deliberately employed to leak fabricated information to deceive enemy Living Agents – Own clever, talented, tough and loyal agents, who are trained to gain access to the enemy and bring back true useful information

Secret Agents : 

47 Secret Agents “If plans relating to a secret operation are prematurely divulged, then the agents and all those in knowledge should be put to death”

Sequence : 

48 Sequence Introduction Biographical Sketch Salient Features of His Ideas and Strategies Impact of His Ideas on Conduct of War Validity of His Ideas and Doctrine to Modern Times Place in History Sqn Ldr Adnan Sqn Ldr Shahzad

Slide 49: 

49 Impact of his Ideas on

Impact on Conduct of War : 

50 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory

Impact on Conduct of War : 

51 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory Every state must have a war doctrine of her own to defend against external aggression It is a doctrine of war not to assume the enemy will not come but rather to rely on readiness to meet him; not to presume that he will not attack, but rather to make oneself invincible

Impact on Conduct of War : 

52 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory When enemy concentrates, prepare against him Anger his general and confuse him Keep him under strain to wear him down When united divide him Attack him where he is unprepared

Impact on Conduct of War : 

53 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory Operational preparedness Swiftness Speed Operations should have specific aims Victory is the main object in war. If it is delayed weapons are blunted and morale depressed, when troops attack cities, their strength will be exhausted

Impact on Conduct of War : 

54 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory When ten to enemy’s one, surround him When five times his strength, attack him If double the strength, divide him If equally matched, you may engage him If weaker numerically, be capable of withdrawing If unequal, be capable of eluding him

Impact on Conduct of War : 

55 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory When capable, pretend incapacity; when active, inactivity When near, make it appear that you are far away; when far that you are near Offer the enemy a bait to lure him, pretend disorder and strike him

Impact on Conduct of War : 

56 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory Protracted campaigns, lead to insufficient resources War demands victory, not prolonged operations Master of the people’s fate and arbiter of the nation

Impact on Conduct of War : 

57 Impact on Conduct of War Doctrine Strategy Operations Tactics Deception Limited War Victory He who knows when to fight and when not to fight He who knows the use of small and large forces He whose ranks are united in purpose Prudent and lies in wait for a weak enemy Able Generals not hindered by the sovereign

Art of Generalship : 

58 Art of Generalship Reckless Coward Short tempered Delicate sense of honour Compassionate Dangerous Qualities

Art of Generalship : 

59 Art of Generalship “The ruin of army and the death of the general are inevitable results of these shortcomings. These must be deeply pondered”

Impact on Leadership : 

60 Impact on Leadership “Fight no battle unprepared and fight no battle you are not sure of winning” “Replenish strength with arms and personnel captured from the enemy”

Slide 61: 

61

Operation Iraqi Freedom : 

62 Operation Iraqi Freedom “As water has no constant form; In war, there are no constant conditions” Fluid kind of war strategy based on Manoeuvre Deception Indirection

Operation Iraqi Freedom : 

63 Operation Iraqi Freedom Americans avoided fixed campaign plans Battle field intelligence - US military used Hi-tech sensors Normal forces will engage the enemy; and extraordinary forces would probe for weak points Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom : 

64 Operation Iraqi Freedom “If a General who heeds my strategy, is employed; he is certain to win. Retain him!”

War in Pacific : 

65 War in Pacific “When the enemy speaks in the humble tone, he continues his preparation and will advance”

War in Pacific : 

66 War in Pacific December 7, 1941 Japanese bombing on Pearl Harbour “When you are ignorant of the enemy but you know yourself; the chances of winning or losing the battle are equal”

Korean War : 

67 Korean War “To be certain to take what you attack, attack the place where enemy does not protect”

Korean War : 

68 Korean War

Vietnam War : 

69 Vietnam War Hot, dark and wet Language was strange Foe not easily distinguishable from friend American public unwilling to tolerate death Deception and psychological dominance

War in Afghanistan : 

70 War in Afghanistan Soviets were unfamiliar with the terrain and underestimated the will of Afghans Afghans were familiar with the terrain and employed guerilla warfare

Slide 71: 

71

Place in History : 

72 Place in History “A compulsory course on Sun Tzu’s strategic thoughts be established in all the military academies throughout the world” Field Marshal Montgomery

Comparison with other strategists : 

73 Comparison with other strategists Sun Tzu Clausewitz Jomini

Influence : 

74 Influence Jomini – American civil war Clausewitz – World Wars I and II Sun Tzu – Chinese warfare

Concept of War : 

75 Concept of War War forms a part of existence of man Discovered secrets behind art of waging war War and violence : A corollary War is an act of violence to compel the enemy to fulfill our will War is a recurrent conscious act Requires a rational analysis Not to be fought thoughtlessly or recklessly Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Relationship – Policy & War : 

76 Relationship – Policy & War Advocates singularity of command Sovereign and general are one Fails to understand the roles of ruler and general War is to be regarded as a political instrument War decision to rest with sovereign No interference by the sovereign after declaration of war Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Offence and Defence : 

77 Offence and Defence Forms of warfare are offence and defence Defence is the stronger form of warfare Whether to attack or defend must be decided by the circumstances Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Tactics : 

78 Tactics Taught Napolean’s method of war but as conditions changed the methods became outdated Does not dwell much on the forms and methods of war Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Surprise and Deception : 

79 Surprise and Deception In terms of time and space Surprise lies at the foundation of all undertakings All warfare is based on deception When capable feign incapacity; When active, inactivity When near make it appear you are far Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Psycho-Moral Aspects : 

80 Psycho-Moral Aspects Hasn’t mentioned much about it War is a battle of opposing wills, hence the breaching of enemy’s will should be the object of war Primary target in war is the mind of the opposing commander Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Terrain : 

81 Terrain Hasn’t elaborated Geography and the character of ground bear a close relation to warfare. They have an influence on engagement, its planning and exploitation A general who is unable to use ground properly is unfit for command Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Intelligence : 

82 Intelligence Efficient espionage and aggressive reconnaissance is vital for battle plan Hasn’t covered What enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike, conquer and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Stratagem : 

83 Stratagem “The skillful leader subdues the enemy troops without fighting; he captures their cities without laying siege to them; he overthrows their kingdom without any lengthy operations in field. With his forces intact, his triumph will be complete”

Aim of War : 

84 Aim of War Destruction of enemy forces and capture of territory Never grasped that true aim of war is peace and not victory There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Application of theory : 

85 Application of theory Never commanded a division Wrote about war from an observers viewpoint Never commanded a division Could not validate his theories through practice Has put his own theories to test Wrote a treatise on war and proved his own theories Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

Slide 86: 

86

Slide 87: 

87

Offensive Strategy : 

88 Offensive Strategy When ten to enemy’s one, surround him When five times his strength, attack him If double the strength, divide him If equally matched, you may engage him If weaker numerically, be capable of withdrawing If unequal, be capable of eluding him

Nation in Arms : 

89 Nation in Arms Nation frenzied on war raised the morale of the fighting troops and victories like those of Napoleon Absolute war in which violence could be taken to its extreme limits Era in which armies fought but populace was not harmed much Jomini Clausewitz Sun Tzu

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