ANIMAL PPT: Vertebrate and Invertebrate

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Vertebrates &Invertebrates : 

Vertebrates &Invertebrates Interactive Presentation

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Introduction You are about to begin an interactive presentation. Caution: This is not a normal presentation! YOU will be participating! You will be learning about two main classifications of animals: Vertebrates, invertebrates, and the differences between them.

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There are several ways to navigate through this presentation: On some slides you can click on the boxes that look like this: You can click the “next” or “back” buttons like the one at the bottom left of this page. For slides with questions, just click on your choice. Directions

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Presentation Objectives Given access to this presentation, the students will navigate through this presentation with 90% accuracy. Given questions within the presentation, the students will correctly answer 70% of the questions. Given at least 30 minutes to explore the presentation and given characteristics of a specific animal, students will be able to identify whether the animal is a vertebrate or an invertebrate with 80% accuracy.

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Classification of Animals Click on vertebrates or invertebrates to learn more about each!! Click below after you have read about vertebrates and invertebrates ANIMALS VERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES

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Vertebrates Animals that are vertebrates are simply animals with a backbone. Vertebrates have an endoskeleton It offers support and protects the soft parts of the animal.

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Vertebrates Vertebrates can either be ectotherms or endotherms. Ectotherms (cold-blooded) Body temperature changes to match their surroundings. Endotherms (warm-blooded) Regulate their body temperature so that it remains constant

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Vertebrates Vertebrate animals fall into the chordate phylum. The chordate phylum is divided into classes. Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

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Vertebrates This chart shows the vertebrates organized into classes. Fish Mammals Birds Amphibians Reptiles Click on a box to learn more about that class of vertebrates! When you are done, click the link at the bottom left of the screen to learn about invertebrates! Click here to go to Invertebrates VERTEBRATES

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Fish are cold-blooded animals. This means that their blood temperature changes with the temperature of the surrounding water. Most fish live close to the shore in water that is less than 600 feet deep. In the ocean, the deeper the water, the dimmer the light. Many fish who live at 2000 feet or deeper glow in the dark. Fish

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All fish have gills. These gills absorb oxygen from the water and pass it along to the bloodstream. A fishes scales are called armor because they protect it. A slimy substance moistens the scales. This protects the fish from infection and helps the fish slip through the water faster. Fish

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Fish Fish stay afloat because they have swim bladders. By changing the amount of air in its bladder, a fish never rises or sinks, but stays balanced.

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Fish Fins move the fish forward, steer it, and help the fish to keep its balance. - The pectoral and pelvic fins are used for balance, steering, and braking. - The dorsal fin keeps the fish from rolling over and works along with the anal fin. - The tail (caudal fin) provides power, thrushing the fish forward.

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Fish Fish are actually divided into 3 different classes. Click the boxes to learn about these 3 types. You must click the boxes in order from top to bottom. Cartilaginous Fish Bony Fish Jawless Fish

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Bony Fish Bony fish make up about 95% of all fish. Skeletons are made up of bone. Their scaly skin is covered with a slimy mucous. Their mouth is generally at the front of the body. They have a tail fin.

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Cartilaginous Fish Chilean Skate Ray Great White Shark Cartilaginous fish include the sharks, skates and rays. Although these look different, they have many features in common. None of them have any true bone - their skeleton is made of cartilage. They have strong jaws

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Cartilaginous Fish Continued… Their mouth is on the underside of their body. Their eyes are on the top of their body. They cannot see food as it enters their mouth. Some sharks solve this problem by touching their food briefly with their nose first. Some also use a powerful electrosensory system.

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Jawless Fish lamprey This is a primitive eel-like fish which doesn't have a true jaw, but a sucker-like mouth (like suction cups!) and rasping teeth. There are two main types: Lampreys Lampreys are found in freshwater lakes and streams as well as in salt water. Hagfish Hagfish, or blind eels, are found only in salt water and feed mainly on dead fish.

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Click on the correct choice. The majority of fish fall into which class? Bony Fish Cartilaginous Fish Jawless Fish Let’s Review Fish!!!

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OOPS! You chose B. Cartilaginous Fish. That is incorrect. Think about the majority of fish you have seen in your life…what is hard inside their body?

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OOPS! You chose C. Jawless Fish. That is incorrect. Think about the majority of fish you have seen in your life…what is hard inside their body?

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Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is A Bony Fish. About 95% of all fish are considered bony fish!

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Click on the correct choice. Which fin gives the fish balance, steering, and braking? Dorsal Fin Caudal Fin (tail) Pectoral and Pelvic Fins Let’s Review Fish!!!

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OOPS! You chose B. Caudal Fin (tail). That is incorrect. The caudal fin (tail) actually gives the fish the power to move forward.

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OOPS! You chose A. Dorsal Fin. That is incorrect. The dorsal fin keeps the fish from rolling over.

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Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is C. Pectoral and Pelvic Fin. These allow the fish to balance, steer, and brake.

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Amphibians Salamander newts toad These animals have smooth skin Most spend at least part of their life in water. Amphibians are cold-blooded (hibernate in winter). They usually have three life stages: egg, larva, adult (metamorphosis). Includes: Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, and Newts. Ever wonder what the difference between a frog and a toad was? Click here to find out!

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WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FROG AND A TOAD ?

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Adult Frog Young Frog Fertilized Eggs Tadpoles Adults are typically ready tobreed in about one to two years. Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external fertilization. The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to several weeks later. Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults. Metamorphosis

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Amphibians Amphibian = “double life” Live in both water and land Most larvae are fishlike; adults are terrestrial carnivores Larvae respire through skin/gills; Adults use lungs Descendants of ancestral organisms that evolved some, not all, adaptations for life on land First appeared 360 million years ago External fertilization Closed circulatory system; three chambered heart

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Amphibians Groups of Amphibians Salamanders – Long bodies and tails Adults are carnivorous Usually live in moist woods Frogs and Toads – Lack tails Frogs have long legs and are usually tied to water Toads have shorter legs and not as closely tied to water Caecilians – Legless animals that burrow in moist soil Have fishlike scales

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These animals have dry, scaly skin. They are cold-blooded (hibernate in winter). Some live in the water, but most are adapted to life on land. Most reptiles lay soft-shelled eggs, but some bear live young. Includes: Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, and Crocodiles. Fast Fact! Did you know that snakes smell with their tongue! Reptiles Iguana Turtle Crocodile

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Reptiles All reptiles have: Dry, scaly skin – helps prevent loss of body water in dry environments Terestrial eggs – first animals to develop amniotic eggs that didn’t need to be deposited in water Respire using lungs Internal Fertilization; Most are egg-laying Ectotherms – cannot internally regulate body temperature; cannot live in cold climates Behavior controls body temp. (swimming, burrowing, basking, etc.) Closed circulatory system; double loop; Heart = two atria/one or two ventricles

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Reptiles Groups of Reptiles Lizards and Snakes Have legs & clawed toes (lizards) external ears, moveable eyelids Highly evolved specialized forms (venom) Crocodiles and Alligators Long, typically broad snout and squat appearance All are carnivorous Protective of young; carry hatchlings in their mouth Live in tropics and subtropics Alligators live in freshwater Crocodiles live in fresh or saltwater

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Reptiles Turtles and Tortoises – All are shelled Turtles are aquatic; tortoises are terrestrial Tuatara – Primitive reptiles found on small, remote islands

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Birds are warm-blooded. They have hollow bones and feathers. Most can fly at least short distances. Birds are born from hard-shelled eggs. Includes: Raptors, Gulls, Songbirds, and Fowl. Birds Raptor Gull Fowl

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Birds Nearly 10,000 modern bird species Birds are closely related to reptiles (scales on legs) Have outer covering made of feathers, two legs used for walking or perching, and forelimbs modified into wings Feathers separate birds from all other animal species Feathers provide insulation for warmth; can generate on body heat Beak/Bills adapted to type of food they eat Highly efficient respiratory system; lungs only exposed to Oxygen rich air Internal fertilization; amniotic eggs; many mate for life

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Birds Groups of Birds More than thirty orders of birds Some of the most common Perching Birds – largest order; many are songbirds (sparrows, crows, cardinals, etc.) Birds of Prey – fierce predators with hooked bills; large talons (condors, hawks, owls, eagles, etc.) Herons & Relatives – Wade in aquatic habitats (storks, herons, cranes) Ostriches & Relatives – flightless birds move by running or swimming (ostriches, emus, etc.)

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Mammals These animals usually have hair/fur. They give birth to live young and feed their young with milk. Have the most complex brains and nervous systems of any animal on earth. Mammals are warm-blooded. Includes: Rodents, Hoofed animals, Marsupials, Bats, Rabbits, Weasels, Raccoons, Bears, Dogs, and Cats. Rodent Bat Dog

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Mammals First true mammals appeared 220 million years ago Mammals flourished after dinosaurs became extinct – 65 million years ago Basic characteristics Hair Mammary glands – produce milk to nourish young Breathe air Four chambered heart Endotherms – can generate own body heat Internal fertilization; care for young

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Mammals

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Mammals

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Mammals

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Not So Fast!! Let’s try one quick review question!

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Vertebrate Review You see a greenish-brownish colored animal walking in your yard. You get brave, and decide to touch it. It’s skin is dry and scaly. What kind of animal is it most likely? Amphibian Mammal Reptile

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OOPS! You chose A. Amphibian. That is incorrect. Amphibians have smooth skin.

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OOPS! You chose B. Mammal. That is incorrect. A mammal’s skin would most likely be furry.

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Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is C. reptile Reptiles have dry, scaly skin.

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What’s the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? Click here to find out! What’s the difference between a reptile and an amphibian? Click here to find out! Fun Facts!

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Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. 97% of all animals are invertebrates! They are divided into different groups or phyla (plural of phylums). Scientists look at something called symmetry to help classify invertebrates. Invertebrates

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Invertebrates Radial symmetry: body parts are arranged around in a circle around a central point (starfish). Bilateral symmetry: have two sides that will match if you draw a line down the center of their body (lobster). Asymmetric: these animals have no definite shape at all (sponges).

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Invertebrates Cnidarian Sponges Arthropods Mollusks Echinoderms Annelids Flatworms Click on a box to learn more about that class of invertebrates! When you are done, click the man at the bottom left of the screen to move on! Click below when you are done learning about invertebrates: INVERTEBRATES Roundworms

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COELENTERATA: Cnidarians Have radial symmetry Sometimes they have stinging tentacles around their mouths that they use to catch food. Polyp Jellyfish

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They have tentacles They have a mouth They live on the ocean floor They shoot poisonous darts jellyfish Sea anemone coral COELENTERATA: Cnidarians

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Have diversified into a wide range of both sessile and floating forms including jellies, corals, and hydras But still exhibit a relatively simple diploblastic, radial body plan The basic body plan of a cnidarian is a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity A single opening functions as both mouth and anus COELENTERATA: Cnidarians

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Cnidarians are carnivores That use tentacles to capture prey The tentacles are armed with cnidocytes Unique cells that function in defense and the capture of prey COELENTERATA: Cnidarians

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COELENTERATA: Cnidarians

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Corals look like plants but they belong to the animal kingdom. They have soft tubelike bodies with a single opening surrounded by armlike parts called tentacles. They feed by catching tiny animals in their tentacles. Hydras have tentacles that catch their food. They move from place to place. Hydras are much smaller animals. Jellyfish catch shrimp,fish, and other animals in its tentacles also. COELENTERATA: Cnidarians

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Asymmetric bodies They filter food out of the water as it passes through them. PORIFERA: Sponges

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Sponges Characteristics They look like plants but they are animals. Sponges stay fixed in one place. Their bodies are full of holes and their skeleton is made of spiky fibers. Water flows through the holes of their body which enables them to catch food. PORIFERA: Sponges

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NEMATODA: Roundworms These outnumber every other animal on earth. They can be predators, parasites, or decomposers.

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They have rounded bodies. They live in damp places and they can also live inside humans and other animals. They too can make people and other animals sick. NEMATODA: Roundworms

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Arthropods Have jointed body parts Bilateral symmetry Segmented bodies Lobster, house fly, beetle, butterflies, spiders Butterfly Beetle Tarantula House Fly Lobster Crustaceans Arachnids Insects

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Arthropods Crustaceans Crustaceans live mostly in the ocean or other waters. Most commonly known crustaceans are the crab and lobster. Crustaceans have a hard, external shell which protects their body. Crustaceans have a head and abdomen. The head has antennae which are part of their sensory system. The abdomen includes the heart, digestive system and reproductive system. The abdomen also has appendages, such as legs, for crawling and swimming. Many crustaceans also have claws that help with crawling and eating. Crustaceans Arachnids Insects

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Crustaceans Arachnids Insects Arthropods Cheliceriformes: Arachnids Arachnids are a type of arthropod. You know many of them as spiders. Like other arthropods, the arachnids have a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages for walking. Unlike other arthropods, arachnids do not have antennae. Common arachnids are the spider, scorpions, ticks and mites.

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Crustaceans Arachnids Insects Arthropods Hexapoda: Insects Insects are the largest group of arthropods. There are over 800,000 different types of insects. The insect's head has a pair of antennae, and a pair of compound eyes. Compound eyes are different from human eyes which have a single lens for each eye. Compound eyes have many lenses for each eye. For example, the fly has about 4,000 lenses in a single eye. This provides them with very good eyesight.

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Long, flat bodies Bilateral symmetry Most are parasites that invade other creatures and live off of them. Planaria, tapeworms, liver flukes Platyhelminthes: Flatworms Planaria Liver Flukes Tapeworm

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Platyhelminthes: Flatworms Live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats Are flattened dorsoventrally and have a gastrovascular cavity They have a head and a tail, and flattened bodies.

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Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

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Annelida: Segmented worms The earthworm belongs to this group of worms. Their bodies are divided in segments, or sections. They prefer burrowing through moist soil. This allows them to move easily and it keeps them from drying out.

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Annelida: Segmented worms

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Mollusks Soft bodies Protective shell Land mollusks include snails and slugs and have lungs. Water mollusks include oysters, mussels, clams, squids, and octopuses which use gills to breathe. Octopus Snail Oyster

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squid snail octopus Mollusks They live on land and fresh water and ocean water. They make shells from minerals in the water Two shelled mollusks has a big foot to pull itself along

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snail octopus Mollusks A mollusk has a hard shell, a rough tongue, and a muscular foot. A snail is a mollusk with a single hard shell. A clam has two shells joined together by a hinge. Squids and octopuses are also mollusk. Their hard shells are small, but they are inside their bodies.

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snail octopus Mollusks All mollusks have a similar body plan with three main parts A visceral mass A mantle A muscular foot

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snail octopus Mollusks

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Echinoderms Spiny skin Radial symmetry Thousands of tube-like feet Starfish, sea urchin, sand dollar, and sea cucumber. Sand Dollar Sea Urchin Starfish Sea Cucumber

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Echinoderms They have bodies with at least 5 sections They have suction cup feet to walk They use tubes to catch food to.

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Echinoderms It belongs to a group of invertebrates that have tiny tube feet and body parts arranged around a central area. A starfish has five arms and no head! The hard, spiny covering of the starfish gives the animal protection. A sea urchin belongs to this same group. Its body is covered with spines.

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Echinoderms

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Let’s Review What type of symmetry does the following invertebrate have? Radial Bilateral Asymmetric

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OOPS! You chose c. asymmetric. That is incorrect. Think about the left and right sides of a butterfly…

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OOPS! You chose a. radial. That is incorrect. Are all their body parts arranged around a circle?

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Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is B. bilateral Both sides of the butterfly are idential.

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Congratulations! You have just finished learning about vertebrates and invertebrates! You are now an expert zoo keeper! On Monday we will continue our quest….