Module 9 - Abbreviations Statistics - APA 6th ed

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APA Style - Abbreviations - Statistics - Texas State University - EDCL - Educational Leadership

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ABBREVIATIONS & STATISTICS:

ABBREVIATIONS & STATISTICS APA 6 th Edition Trae Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Professor & EDCL Program Coordinator Zane Wubbena, M.A., Ph.D. Student – School Improvement (Updated July 2014)

Overview:

Overview APA 6 th Edition Abbreviations General Use Latin Abbreviations Examples Statistics & Variables Singular vs. Plural Written vs. Abbreviated When to Use Italics Examples Helpful Resources

Abbreviations (General Use):

Abbreviations (General Use) Use an abbreviation only after introducing the term and abbreviation. Example : According to the American Psychological Association (APA), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication. See below for exceptions to this APA format guideline. Exceptions Write out unless used at least 4 times Common abbreviations do not need to be written (e.g., IQ , HIV) Do not use abbreviations in reference list Example : The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention would not be abbreviated as CDC in references When using units of measure with a numerical value, do not write out the measure. If no number, then write out the unit. Example : 12 g vs. “several grams”

Abbreviations (Latin Abbreviations):

Abbreviations (Latin Abbreviations) Purpose: to replace common argumentative phrases without taking up much space or distracting readers Ensure that the abbreviation is within parentheses (e.g.) If not in parentheses, then write out the English translation f or example Abbreviation English i.e. that is e.g. for example etc. and so forth vs. versus cf. compare ed. edition n.d. no date viz. namely et al. and others

Abbreviations (Examples: Latin Abbreviations):

Abbreviations ( Examples: Latin Abbreviations) Example 1 In text, no abbreviations: The subjects were asked to describe their feelings—that is, their moods, perceptions, and emotions—in the box provided on the survey form. In parenthetical form, with abbreviations: The subjects were asked to describe their feelings (i.e., their moods, perceptions, and emotions) in the box provided on the survey form. Example 2 In text, no abbreviations : Survey respondents ranked their choices in order of preference, first, second, third, and so forth. In parenthetical form, with abbreviations : Survey respondents ranked their choices in order of preference (first, second, third, etc.).

Statistics & Variables (Singular vs. Plural):

Statistics & Variables (Singular vs. Plural) Sentence syntax determines singular or plural variable use All plural abbreviated forms are made by adding a non-italic lowercase “ s” Do not use an apostrophe plus an “s,” an italic “s,” or a capital “S .” Incorrect : ps < .05, p’s < .05; Ms = 3.70 and 4.22; Means = 3.70 and 4.22; degree’s of freedom. Correct : p s < .05; M s = 3.70 and 4.22; degrees of freedom.

Statistics & Variables (Written vs. Abbreviated):

Statistics & Variables (Written vs. Abbreviated) Use the written-out form of the variable in prose; use the symbol in conjunction with all mathematical operators (such as the equals sign or the greater than/less than signs). As usual, use singular or plural as needed by the context.

Statistics & Variables (Italics):

Statistics & Variables (Italics ) Variables are italicized. Superscript numbers are not italicized - R 2 Identifiers (which can be superscript or subscript words, letters, or numbers) are not italicized. - If M girls = 4.22 and M boys = 3.78, the symbol for mean is italicized, but the nonvariable identifiers (here identifying the two groups, “girls” and “boys”) are not italicized.  

Statistics & Variables (Abbreviation Chart):

Written-out form Abbreviation/symbol Singular Plural Singular Plural Cohen’s d Cohen’s d s d d s degree of freedom degrees of freedom df df s F statistic or F value F statistics or F values F F s   mean means M M s sample size (subsample) sample sizes (subsample) n n s   sample size (full sample) sample sizes (full sample) N N s   p value p values p p s   r value r values r r s   R 2 value R 2 values R 2   R 2 s   standard deviation standard deviations SD SD s   standard error standard errors SE SE s   t value t values t t s   z score z scores z z s   Cronbach’s alpha Cronbach’s alphas Cronbach’s α Cronbach’s α s beta betas β β s chi-square chi-squares χ 2 χ 2 s delta deltas Δ Δ s Statistics & Variables (Abbreviation Chart)

Statistics & Variables (Example: Results):

Statistics & Variables (Example: Results) Two one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted. The independent variable was conservation ability and included two levels: conserving and non-conserving. The two dependent variables were addition fluency and subtraction fluency; age was the covariate. Familywise error was controlled using a Bonferroni correction (α Familywise = .05/2 = .025) . Addition fluency scores ranged from 3 to 53, and subtraction fluency scores ranged from 0 to 52. The mean addition fluency score was 23.06 ( SD = 11.85), and the mean subtraction fluency score was 14.96 ( SD = 11.15). The covariate age was significant for both analyses, and the addition and subtraction means were thus adjusted as a function of age. The first ANCOVA, after controlling for age, revealed a significant main effect for conservation on addition fluency, F (1, 94) = 33.89, p < .001, η 2 = .27. The age-adjusted mean addition fluency score was significantly greater for conserving children than for non-conserving children, Cohen's d = 1.30 (see addition column in Table 1). The second ANCOVA, after controlling for age, revealed a significant main effect for conservation on subtraction fluency, F (1, 94) = 55.89, p < .001, η 2 = .37. The age-adjusted mean subtraction fluency score was significantly greater for conserving children than for non-conserving children, Cohen's d = 1.67 (see subtraction column in Table 1).

Helpful Resources:

Helpful Resources Purdue OWL APA 6 th edition Manual Visit Other APA Style (6 th ed.) Modules In This Series

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