Module 8 - Bias Language - APA 6th ed

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

APA Style - Quotes - Texas State University - EDCL - Educational Leadership

Comments

Presentation Transcript

BIAS & LANGUAGE:

BIAS & LANGUAGE APA 6 th Edition Trae Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Professor & EDCL Program Coordinator Zane Wubbena, M.A., Ph.D. Student – School Improvement (Updated July 2014)

Overview:

Overview APA 6 th Edition General Approaches Rules for Specific Populations Reducing Bias Exercise Helpful Resources

General Approaches (Bias & Language):

General Approaches (Bias & Language) Refer to individuals using the terms that they prefer to be called. When possible, use “neutral” terms. Avoid the word normal . Don’t use the word subjects Appropriate terms: participants, individuals, college students, children, respondents When discussing statistics, however, subjects and sample are appropriate Use active voice rather than passive E.g., “students completed the survey” NOT “students were given the survey ”

Rules for Specific Populations (Racial & Ethnic Identity):

Rules for Specific Populations (Racial & Ethnic Identity) Black and African American are acceptable terms Negro and Afro-American are inappropriate Capitalize Black and White I ndicate specific country of origin if possible Cuban or Chinese NOT Hispanic or Asian Do not hyphenate multiword names Asian American NOT Asian-American Other acceptable terms : American Indian , Native American , Native North American, Hispanic , Latino, Chicano, Asian , Asian American , or more specific subgroups such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean , specific tribes, etc.

Rules for Specific Populations (Gender):

Rules for Specific Populations ( Gender) Gender is cultural and refers to men and women as social groups. Sex is biological and should not be confused with gender. Use the individual when referring to men and women. Use “he or she” sparingly. Avoid he/she and (s)he . Do not use –man as a generic ending for an occupation, such as policeman. When possible, drop pronouns entirely.

Rules for Specific Populations (Disabilities):

Rules for Specific Populations ( Disabilities) Use disability to refer to an attribute of a person and handicap to refer to the source. E.g., “steps and curbs handicap people who require a ramp” Use people-first language, avoid equating people with their condition disabled person  person with a disability. autistic  a person with autism . Avoid : crippled, retarded, invalid, special, challenged, handi -capable, neurotics , the disabled, stroke victim These terms may be used, however, if preferred by the study population

Rules for Specific Populations (Age):

Rules for Specific Populations (Age) Be specific. Avoid open ended ranges such as “under 18” or “over 65”. Age-specific Terms Ages 12 or under = girl or boy Ages 13-17 = young woman , young man , female adolescent , or male adolescent Ages 18+ = women or men Use older adults instead of the elderly

Rules for Specific Populations (Sexual Orientation):

Rules for Specific Populations ( Sexual Orientation) The term homosexuality is often associated with negative stereotypes and only to men. Similarly, gay can be interpreted too broadly or too narrowly. Use APA approved terms - lesbian , gay man , bisexual man , and bisexual woman - to increase specificity. When describing sexual behavior, s ame-gender , male-male , female-female , and male-female sexual behavior are appropriate.

Rules for Specific Populations (Specify Group Designation):

Rules for Specific Populations ( Specify Group Designation) Example: AVOID : “The sample included 400 undergraduate students” PREFERRED : “The sample of 400 undergraduate students included 250 Whites (125 males and 125 females) and 150 Blacks (75 males and 75 females ).” Example: AVOID : “ The 50 American Indians” PREFERRED : “The 50 American Indians represented…(25 Choctaw, 15 Hopi, and 10 Seminole)…” When relevant, human subject samples should be described with respect to generation, linguistic background, socioeconomic status, national origin/tribe/peoplehood, sexual orientation, special interest group membership, etc.

Rules for Specific Populations (Avoid Evaluative Language):

Rules for Specific Populations (Avoid Evaluative Language) Example: AVOID : “…the articulate Mexican American professor …” PREFERRED : “… the Mexican American professor…” Qualifying adjectives may subtly suggest that the "articulate" Mexican American professor is an exception to the norm (for Mexican American professors).

Rules for Specific Populations (Clinical Terms):

Rules for Specific Populations (Clinical Terms) Terms such as “borderline” and “at risk” should be avoided unless properly explained. Specify the diagnosis that is borderline Ex. “people with borderline personality disorder ” Identify the risk and the people it involves Ex. “children at risk for early school dropout ” Dementia is preferred to senility , better is “ senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type.”

Reduce the Bias (Part I: Questions):

Reduce the Bias (Part I: Questions) Read each of the following statements. Then, edit each to reduce the bias in language. Suggested answers follow. Changes are in red and underlined . The participants were asked to think of their favorite teacher from elementary school and to rate her on the 20 evaluative dimensions. The experimenter can decide when he should provide the debriefing. Typically , the department chairmen must give his approval for each traineeship that is awarded . The participants were 20 male students and 20 coeds .

Reduce the Bias (Part I: Answers):

Reduce the Bias (Part I: Answers) The participants were asked to think of their favorite teacher from elementary school and to rate him or her on the 20 evaluative dimensions . The experimenter can decide when he should to provide the debriefing. Typically , the department chair men must give his approval for each traineeship that is awarded . The participants were 20 male students and 20 coeds female students .

Reduce the Bias (Part II: Biased Text) :

Reduce the Bias (Part II: Biased Text) 5. A psychological test battery was given to gay men and women and to normal men and women to determine whether there would be a relation between childhood sexual abuse and sexual identity. 6. College students were randomly assigned to same-sex or cross-sex dyads. After a Coca-Cola break they were asked to rate the etiquette of their partner. Coeds rated girl partners higher than they rated male partners. The men in this study rated the coeds higher only when the coeds were ladylike and not assertive (i.e., when they did not initiate social exchanges or change a topic of conversation). However, the lowest etiquette ratings were assigned by men to other guys. Independent observations indicated that the guys acted more masculine with other guys than with the gals but that the gals were more masculine with members of the gentle sex than with threatening men.

Reduce the Bias (Part II: Revisions & Edits):

Reduce the Bias (Part II: Revisions & Edits) 5. A psychological test battery was given to gay men and women lesbians and to normal heterosexual men and women to determine whether there would be a relation between childhood sexual abuse and sexual identity. 6. College students were randomly assigned to same-sex or cross-sex dyads. After a Coca-Cola break they were asked to rate the etiquette of their partner. Coeds Female students rated girl female partners higher than they rated male partners. The men male students in this study rated the coeds their female partners higher only when the coeds female partners were ladylike and not assertive (i.e., when they did not initiate social exchanges or change a topic of conversation). However, the lowest etiquette ratings were assigned by men male students to other guys male students . Independent observations indicated that the guys male students were acted more masculine assertive with other guys male students than with the gals female students but that the gals female students were more masculine assertive with members of the gentle sex other female students than with threatening men male students .

For More Information:

For More Information Purdue OWL APA 6 th edition Manual p. 70-77 R educing Bias Visit Other APA Style (6 th ed.) Modules In This Series

authorStream Live Help