Module 3 - Abstract - APA Style (6th ed)

Category: Education

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APA 6th ed. - Abstract - Texas State University - Education & Community Leadership


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ABSTRACTS APA 6 th Edition Trae Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Professor & EDCL Program Coordinator Zane Wubbena, M.A., Ph.D. Student – School Improvement (Updated July 2014)


Overview APA 6 th Edition Background What’s an abstract? What’s a good abstract? How to Create an Abstract Abstract Guidelines Writing an abstract Video Tutorial Examples Helpful Resources

What’s an abstract?:

What’s an abstract? Most important paragraph of article D etermine if entire article should be read—survey of contents C oncise summary of article’s contents and keywords Indexed by database search engines

What’s a good abstract?:

What’s a good abstract ? A good abstract is (APA, 2010, p. 26): Accurate R eflects the purpose and contents of entire article to help the reader determine if the article should be read Outline (headings) of article closely aligned with abstract Non- E valuative Doesn’t evaluate the article—only reports contents Coherent and R eadable Active voice (e.g., This study investigated … rather than This study was an investigation of …) P resent tense describes results/conclusions Clear, Concise, and Informative: Four to five important concepts, findings, and implications K eywords others use to search for literature

Abstract Guidelines:

Abstract Guidelines Draft abstract while writing article, but don’t complete until article is finished Start Abstract on page 2 (after title page) Center “Abstract” on page Don’t indent abstract paragraph W ord count: 150 to 250 words Follow Author Guidelines of journal if different word count is provided (e.g., 150 word maximum) Avoid references Keywords used in abstract Helps index article in database for search ability

Abstract Guidelines:

Abstract Guidelines Abstracts according to article type: Empirical: 1) Problem, 2) Participants, 3) Methods, 4) Findings, and 5) Conclusions/implications Literature review: 1) Problem, 2) Eligible criteria, 3) Primary studies participants, 4) Results, 5) Conclusions, and 6) Implications Theory - oriented: 1) How the theory/model works (its foundations) and 2) The phenomenon explained by theory/model & links to empirical research Methodological: 1) Type of method used, 2) Method’s c entral features, 3) Application of method, 4) Essential features Case study: 1) Subject & characteristics studied, 2) Solution/problem of case example, and 3) New questions for additional research or theories

Writing an abstract:

Writing an abstract Abstract (Empirical) Example empirical article: Mathematical Fluency as a Function of Conservation Ability in Young Children Purpose /problem investigated This study was designed to investigate the cognitive level of development and mathematical fluency of first grade children. Methods Participants Materials Process Piaget’s conservation-of-liquid task was administered to 97 6- and 7-year-old children from two low-socioeconomic-level elementary schools. Using a counterbalanced design, conserving and non-conserving children completed separately timed lists of addition and subtraction problems. Analysis and Results/ major findings Two one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to evaluate the fixed-factor of conservation level (conserving and non- conserving) and the two dependent variables (addition and subtraction fluency); age was a covariate. After controlling for the effect of age, the results suggest that conserving children were significantly more fluent in completing addition and subtraction problems than non- conserving children. Conclusions/Implications Overall, children in the same grade and of the same age were at different levels of cognitive development; these levels had an effect on both addition and subtraction fluencies.

Video Tutorial:

Video Tutorial

Example: Descriptive Abstract:

Example: Descriptive Abstract

Example: Structured Abstract:

Example: Structured Abstract

Helpful Resources:

Helpful Resources Purdue OWL - Abstract How to Write an Abstract APA 6 th edition Manual UNC Abstract Handout Emerald Abstract Info. Visit Other APA Style (6 th ed.) Modules In This Series

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