curriculum development

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION Teaching & Learning Commons http://talc.ukzn.ac.za Presentation

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Overview of the Presentation Introduction Concept of curriculum Difference between syllabus and curriculum Criteria of Utility, Variety and Flexibility Four phases of curriculum process Suggestions for improving the effectiveness of curriculum development process 4.1 Criterion of Utility 4.2 Criterion of Variety 4.3 Criterion of Flexibility 5.1  Curriculum Design Phase 5.2 Curriculum Development Phase 5.3  Curriculum Implementation Phase 5.4 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide # 2 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM A systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study; A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the college should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification or for entrance into a professional or vocational field; Slide # 3 Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM A body of prescribed educative experiences under the supervision of an educational institute, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part or to qualify him for a trade or a profession. Slide # 4 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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ATTRIBUTES OF CURRICULUM Related to an occupation Objective oriented content Planned learning experiences Criteria for evaluation of student’s performance Slide # 5 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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SYLLABUS List of Subjects Content outline for each subject Broad time Allocations Slide # 6 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYLLABUS AND CURRICULUM the needs of the students, the content (in terms of specific performances) and instructional methodology Functionally a ‘Syllabus’ is generally unidimensional in the sense it merely presents the content or the subject matter to be studied. Curriculum is three dimensional, because it takes into account: Slide # 7 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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What are the defects / deficiencies in the syllabus of a course you are teaching? Slide # 8 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 9 Contd. Table 1: Deficiencies in the syllabus and their possible effects on the teaching-learning process http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 10 Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 11 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 12 CRITERIA OF UTILITY, VARIETY AND FLEXBILITY While making various decisions during the process of curriculum development three criteria, described below, are usually employed: CRITERION OF UTILITY CRITERION OF VARIETY CRITERION OF FLEXIBILITY http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 13 CRITERIA TO BE USED FOR DECISION MAKING 1. UTILITY CRITERION CONTENT Must know Should know Nice to know http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 14 2. CRITERION OF VARIETY Interesting Variety of learning experiences CRITERIA TO BE USED FOR DECISION MAKING http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 15 3. CRITERION OF FLEXIBILITY Horizontal and Vertical mobility CRITERIA TO BE USED FOR DECISION MAKING Modular approach Bridge Courses Core and Elective subjects http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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FOUR PHASES OF CURRICULUM PROCESS Design Phase Development Phase Implementation Phase Evaluation Phase Figure 1: Four Phases of Curriculum Process Slide # 16 FEEDBACK LOOPS http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE Slide # 17 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 18 CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE The main objective of this phase is to determine the general and specific objectives of the particular U.G. / P.G. programme. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 19 CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE What abilities the students possess on entry into the course? What abilities they will acquire on leaving the course? (as indicated by the job analysis) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN (a) and (b) IS THE GAP THAT MUST BE BRIDGED WHEN DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 20 Formulation of the OBJECTIVES of the curriculum Job analysis Identification of knowledge and skill requirements Formulation of programme objectives Specification of entering behaviour CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 21 Figure 2: Learning as a change in behaviour Educational Process Student Input Entering behaviour Student Output Terminal behaviour http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 22 EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES COURSE DESCRIPTION (CONTENT) PREREQUISITES OBJECTIVE What the learner has to know before he starts the course What the learner measurably knows after successful completion of the course CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEARNER Figure 3: Educational Objectives http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 23 INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Instructional Objectives are statements that communicate in behavioural terms the expected performance of the students at the END of instruction http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Knowledge (intellectual) Cognitive Domain Affective domain Attitudes (values) Skills (Manual) Psychomotor Domain MAIN CATEGORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Slide # 24 Figure 4: Main categories of Human Behaviour http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHASE Slide # 25 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 26 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHASE Development of the instructional resources necessary for achieving the objectives http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 27 Sequencing the various subjects / courses Selecting the content in each subject Sequencing the units and topics Selecting instructional methods, instructional materials and media Preparation of plans for instruction Development of tests and other materials needed for evaluation of students performance Orienting the teachers to the new curriculum. TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHASE http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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PROGRAMME Slide # 28 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Slide # 29 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 30 CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Preparation for and monitoring of the actual implementation of the curriculum http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 31 Preparation of implementation plans. Organising in-service staff development programmes. Effecting organisational changes like work distribution, role clarification, provision of support services and streamlining procedures and communication channels. Actual implementation of the curriculum in the identified institutions. Monitoring the implementation processes and evaluation of students performance. Collection of feedback information. TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Employers need people who can perform tasks rather than those who only know about tasks Slide # 32 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 33 TWO APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION Academic Approach Competency based Approach http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 34 COMPETENCY Competency is the ability to perform a specific task which is part of a profession / job. A competency will include the required Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 35 TWO APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION COMPETENCY BASED Subject Approach Knowledge Based Analysis of Subject Matter & Disciplines Systems Approach Job / Occupation Based Analysis of Policies, Labour Market and Occupations Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 36 TWO APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION Determining Level and Prerequisites Organise Curriculum According to Logic of the Discipline Develop Instruction Analysis of Job and Tasks Contd. Develop Instruction Organise Curriculum According to way the job is done COMPETENCY BASED http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 37 TWO APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION Who are the Learners? What Learning Objectives? What Learning Strategies? What Resources Needed? How Evaluate? What is to be learned? How will it be learned? What Texts / Materials? What Tests / Exams? COMPETENCY BASED http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 38 Ultimate-general Immediate-specific CURRICULUM INSTRUCTION Continuum along which subjective judgements are made to determine the curricular or instructional nature of educational phenomena Figure 6: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 39 INTENDED CURRICULUM Vs. OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM INTENDED CURRICULUM: Refers to the PRESCRIPTIONS in the curriculum document The intended curriculum is an inert document containing the objectives of the curriculum, content matter, time schedules and the performance standards expected Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 40 INTENDED CURRICULUM Vs. OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM: When an “intended curriculum” is enacted in a classroom or given life through teaching it becomes an “OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM” It deals with the processes of teaching and learning, organisation of the class and the milieu in which instruction takes place. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 41 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION 1. FACTORS RELATED TO THE STUDENT: Aptitude for the subject Proficiency in the language which is used as the medium of instruction Entering behaviour Motivation Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 42 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION 2. FACTORS RELATED TO THE TEACHER: Teacher preparedness Teacher’s resourcefulness Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 43 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION 3. FACTORS RELATED TO THE INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT: Appropriateness of curricular objectives Adequacy of instructional time Instructional resources Instructional methods and procedures Task orientation of the class Evaluation procedures used Feedback provided to students http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE Slide # 44 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 45 CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE Curriculum evaluation can be defined as the collection and provision of evidence, on the basis of which decisions can be taken about the feasibility, effectiveness and educational value of curricula http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Why should we evaluate a curriculum? Slide # 46 To bring the curricular content abreast of modern advances To remove the ‘Dead Wood’ from the curriculum To improve the EFFECTIVENESS of the curriculum To improve the Efficiency of curriculum Implementation process EFFECTIVENESS = Actual Output Planned Output Why? Contd… http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Why should we evaluate a curriculum? Slide # 47 To review the entry behaviour requirements for admission into the course To identify: Why? How an “Intended Curriculum’ is enacted How it becomes operational The factors which may affect it and result in unintended effects http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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EFFECTIVENESS DOING RIGHT THINGS EFFICIENCY DOING THINGS IN THE RIGHT WAY Slide # 48 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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EFFECTIVENESS ACTUAL OUTPUT PLANNED OUTPUT Determination of the extent to which the objectives of the curriculum have been achieved Slide # 49 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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EFFICIENCY OUTPUT INPUT Efficiency is related to the various kinds of COSTS (Money / Time / Space / Instructional Resources etc.) associated with the educational programme Slide # 50 http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 51 CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE Whole curriculum of the programme Curriculum of a single course Specific components like the objectives, course content, teachers’ guide, textbook, audio-visual aids, teaching methods and evaluation procedures. THE ENTITY TO BE EVALUATED: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 52 CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE Outcomes Processes Fit to Standards CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 53 CRITERIA FOR CURRICULUM EVALUATION Outcomes should cover both short range and long-range ones. It should also take cognizance of the unintended outcomes. 1. Outcomes: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 54 The Processes include: 2. Processes: CRITERIA FOR CURRICULUM EVALUATION Student participation in certain activities Interest in the program and The desired pattern of communication between students and teachers http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 55 Standards may have their roots in: 3. Fit to Standards: Pedagogical principles: Appropriate provision of feedback, reinforcement, sufficient amount of repetition etc. Communication principles: Clarity of presentation, proper significance, vocabulary control, multisensory cues, etc. Curricular principles: Correspondence between objectives and planned activities. CRITERIA FOR CURRICULUM EVALUATION http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 56 Formative evaluation Summative evaluation Curriculum Improvement Tasks to be undertaken: CURRICULUM EVALUATION http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 57 This is carried out during the process of curriculum development. The evaluation results provide information to curriculum developers and enable them to correct flaws detected in the curriculum. The evaluation results may contribute to the formation of the curriculum and hence the notion of formative evaluation. 1. Formative evaluation: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 58 This is carried out after offering the curriculum once or twice. Such an evaluation will summarize the merits (as well as the weaknesses) of the programme, hence the notion of summative evaluation. Summative evaluation of curriculum may aid in the specification of the optimal or minimal conditions for usage. Such results may serve the clients / customers in deciding whether they should use the programme at all, or under what conditions (Availability of equipment, space, time, professional prerequisites etc.) they should use it. 2. Summative evaluation: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 59 A curriculum that operates satisfactorily over a certain period of time may gradually become obsolete or deteriorate over time. To prevent this from occurring permanent follow-up and quality control of the programme should be maintained. Quality control may reveal when some or all portions of the programme should be altered or replaced. In this way quality control may lead toward the updating of an old programme and production of “Second Generation Programme”. 3. Curriculum Improvement: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 60 SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Specification of instructional objectives for each course (subject) of the programme. Organising the syllabus in terms of units, topics and sub-topics. Indicating the time allotted for teaching each unit of the course. Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 61 SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Assigning about 15% of the time allotted for each course for revision and conduct of tests. Preparation and inclusion of a Table of Specifications (Blueprint) for construction of Question paper as an integral part of the curriculum, to ensure validity of the question paper. Contd. http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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Slide # 62 SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Greater involvement of teachers in the various tasks of curriculum process. Using the model curriculum as a base for curriculum revision (in various subjects). Conferring Academic autonomy to the colleges Utilisation of the services of Academic council members Establishment of a Curriculum cell in each college Board of Studies Size and Composition http://talc.ukzn.ac.za

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END hansrajhr@ukzn.ac.za http://talc.ukzn.ac.za