pptch09

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Organization Development and Change:

Organization Development and Change Thomas G. Cummings Christopher G. Worley Chapter Nine: Designing Interventions

Definition of Interventions:

Definition of Interventions An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo. …they are deliberate attempts to change an organization or subunit toward a different and more effective state . 9- 2

Characteristics of Effective Interventions:

Characteristics of Effective Interventions 1. Is it relevant to the needs of the organization? Valid information Free and Informed Choice suggests that members are actively involved in making decisions about the changes that will affect them. Internal Commitment means that organization members accept ownership of the intervention and take responsibility for implementing it. 2. Is it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? Because interventions are intended to produce specific results, they must be based on valid knowledge that those outcomes actually can be produced. Otherwise there is no scientific basis for designing an effective OD intervention. 3. Does it transfer competence to manage change to organization members? Org. members should be able to know how to carry out change. 9- 3

How to design interventions:

How to design interventions Designing OD interventions requires paying careful attention to the needs and dynamics of the change; Current knowledge of OD interventions provides only general prescriptions for change. The ability to implement most OD interventions is highly dependent on the skills and knowledge of the change agent, the design of an intervention will depend to some extent on the expertise of the practitioner. There are Two major sets of contingencies that can affect intervention success have been discussed in the OD literature: those having to do with the change situation (including the practitioner) and those related to the target of change. Both kinds of contingencies need to be considered in designing interventions. 9- 4

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions Contingencies Related to the Change Situation These include individual differences among organization members (for example, needs for autonomy), organizational factors (for example, management style and technical uncertainty), and dimensions of the change process itself (for example, degree of top-management support). Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 5

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions Contingencies Related to the Change Situation For example , to resolve motivational problems among blue-collar workers in an oil refinery it is important to know whether interventions intended to improve motivation (for example, job enrichment) will succeed with the kinds of people who work there. Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 6

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions Contingencies Related to the Change Situation * Situational factors that must be considered in designing any intervention: Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 7 Readiness for Change Capability to Change Cultural Context Capabilities of the Change Agent

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions 1. Readiness for Change Intervention success depends heavily on the organization being ready for planned change. Indicators of readiness for change include sensitivity to pressures for change, dissatisfaction with the status quo, availability of resources to support change, and commitment of significant management time. When such conditions are present, interventions can be designed to address the organizational issues uncovered during diagnosis. When readiness for change is low, however, interventions need to focus first on increasing the organization’s willingness to change. Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 8

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions 2. Capability to Change Managing planned change requires particular knowledge and skills, including the ability to motivate change, to lead change, to develop political support, to manage the transition, and to sustain momentum. If organization members do not have these capabilities, then a preliminary training intervention may be needed before members can engage meaningfully in intervention design. 3. Cultural Context intervention design must account for the cultural values and assumptions held by organization members Interventions may have to be modified to fit the local culture, particularly when OD practices developed in one culture are applied to organizations in another culture. For example, a team-building intervention designed for top managers at an American firm may need to be modified when applied to the company’s foreign subsidiaries. e.g Phil. 9- 9

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions 4. Capabilities of the Change Agent Many failures in OD result when change agents apply interventions beyond their competence. In designing interventions, OD practitioners should assess their experience and expertise against the requirements needed to implement the intervention effectively. When a mismatch is discovered, practitioners can explore whether the intervention can be modified to fit their talents better, whether another intervention more suited to their skills can satisfy the organization’s needs, or whether they should enlist the assistance of another change agent who can guide the process more effectively. Ethical guidelines under which od practitioners operate requires full disclosure of the applicability of their knowledge and expertise to the client situation. Practitioners are expected to intervene within their capabilities or to recommend someone more suited to the client’s needs. 9- 10

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions Contingencies Related to the Target of Change The following four interrelated issues that are key targets of OD interventions: 9- 11 Strategic Issues Technology and structure issues Human resources issues Human process issues

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions Strategic Issues Strategic issues are among the most critical facing organizations in today’s changing and highly competitive environments. Technology and structure issues Organizations must decide how to divide work into departments and then how to coordinate among those departments to support strategic directions. They also must make decisions about how to deliver products or services and how to link people to tasks. OD methods for dealing with these structural and technological issues are called techno-structural interventions and include OD activities relating to organization design, employee involvement, and work design. Human resources issues Human process issues Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 12

The Design of Effective Interventions:

The Design of Effective Interventions 3. Human resources issues Concerned with attracting competent people to the organization, setting goals for them, appraising and rewarding their performance, and ensuring that they develop their careers and manage stress. OD techniques aimed at these issues are called human resources management interventions. 4. Human process issues Issues have to do with social processes occurring among organization members, such as communication, decision making, leadership, and group dynamics. OD methods focusing on these kinds of issues are called human process interventions; included among them are some of the most common OD techniques, such as conflict resolution and team building. 9- 13

Intervention Overview:

Intervention Overview Human Process Interventions Technostructural Interventions Human Resources Management Interventions Strategic Interventions Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 14

Human Process Interventions:

Human Process Interventions Coaching Training and Development Process Consultation and Team Building Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) Organization Confrontation Meeting Intergroup Relationships Large-group Interventions Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 15

Technostructural Interventions:

Technostructural Interventions Structural Design Downsizing Reengineering Employee Involvement Work Design Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 16

Human Resources Management Interventions:

Human Resources Management Interventions Goal Setting Performance Appraisal Reward Systems Career Planning and Development Managing Work Force Diversity Employee Stress and Wellness Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 17

Strategic Interventions:

Strategic Interventions Integrated Strategic Change Mergers and Acquisitions Alliances and Networks Culture Change Self-designing Organizations Organization Learning and Knowledge Management Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western 9- 18

authorStream Live Help