Iraq Wars

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Modern Day Iraq : 

Modern Day Iraq Understand the current conflict in Iraq Iraqi Wars Understand the Current Conflict

IRAQ : 

IRAQ Slightly larger than twice the size of Idaho 27.5 million Muslim 46% Literacy Unemployment 25-50% Oil rich country

History of Iraq : 

History of Iraq Formerly part of Ottoman Empire UN Mandate under Great Britain after WWI (1920) Independence received in 1932 Republic (Democracy) declared in 1958 Military Strongmen ? Dictatorship Saddam Hussein & Baathist party seizes power in 1978 Saddam Hussein & Totalitarian Rule Executions Genocide of Kurds

Saddam Hussein : 

Saddam Hussein President (Dictator) of Iraq

Iran vs. Iraq (1980 – 1988) : 

Iran vs. Iraq (1980 – 1988)

1988 : 

1988 Ends in cease-fire +1,000,000 dead 240,000 dead

Persian Gulf War 1991 : 

Persian Gulf War 1991 Iraq owed Kuwait money (20 million) Iraq invades and overthrows rich Kuwait (1990) Kuwaiti govt. flees to Saudi Arabia USA Response US freezes Iraqi & Kuwati assets Stop trading Operation Desert Shield Fastest Large-scale deployment of military troops over intercontinental distance in military history

Operation Desert Shield : 

Operation Desert Shield 4 Days ? 120,000 troops; Eventually 500,000

Protect Saudi Arabia : 

Protect Saudi Arabia

Carter Doctrine (1980) : 

Carter Doctrine (1980) "...an attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force."

Hussein’s Decision? : 

Hussein’s Decision? Listen to UN and leave? Continue to stay Be sanctioned UN Coalition Every country of the world is against you World Condemnation

Operation Desert Storm : 

Operation Desert Storm

Highway of Death : 

Highway of Death

Death Total : 

Death Total USA 152 Iraq over 100,000 Iraq forced out of Kuwait

Slide 16: 

Allies win

1991 - 2001 Iraq : 

1991 - 2001 Iraq Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to: scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Iraq continued to comply to the inspectors’ demands for the next 12 years

Bill Clinton in 1993 : 

Bill Clinton in 1993 “Saddam Hussein is held responsible for the assassination plot on former President George H. Bush. Saddam Hussein will resort to terrorism if left unchecked.”

September 2001 : 

September 2001 Russian report of Saddam planning terrorist activity Given to USA from Russia

September 11, 2001 : 

September 11, 2001 World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

September 11, 2001 : 

September 11, 2001 Pentagon hit by planes

September 11, 2001 : 

September 11, 2001 Pennsylvania fields - Flight 93 crash

Osama bin Laden : 

Osama bin Laden Blamed for 9/11 Terrorist Attacks Bombed US Embassies previously in other countries

Afghanistan - The Taliban : 

Afghanistan - The Taliban Terrorist Group ruling the country at this time Osama bin Laden is a part of the Taliban / Al-Qaeda Network

Saddam Hussein : 

Saddam Hussein Known for harboring terrorists Thought to have weapons of mass destruction (WMD) Israel blew up his nuclear facilities in the 1980’s Iraq does not listen to United Nations; nuclear facilities President Bush and his Cabinet believe he is a threat to US security

Do you think if Iraq is accused of... : 

Do you think if Iraq is accused of... Harboring & supporting terrorists PLO, Al-Qaeda & bin Laden Being accused of having WMD Israel blew up their facilities in the past Coalition did in 1991 as well that these are legitimate reasons for the US to go to war with IRAQ?

Questions : 

Questions Is Saddam Hussein guilty for the 9/11 attacks? Why does Bush want to go to war with Iraq?

The USA seeks support : 

The USA seeks support Great Britain will give it (8,000 troops) Little support for the proposed war from other countries; want diplomacy not war US gets help from a few countries but not a lot Japan, Brazil, Ukraine, Poland, etc. Turkey won’t allow US access to invade UN inspectors not moving fast enough on finding WMD; Bush & Congress gets restless…

Original Supporters of Iraq War 2003 : 

Original Supporters of Iraq War 2003

March 17, 2003 : 

March 17, 2003 “Saddam Hussein must leave Iraq within 48 hours or face war.” Why would Bush say that he wanted Saddam Hussein to leave the country?

House of Representatives : 

House of Representatives 296 – 133

Senate : 

Senate Vote in favor of War if Saddam does not give up WMD’s: 77-23 Vote in Favor? Yes No

Reasons for War in Iraq?? : 

Reasons for War in Iraq?? 1) Find WMD (original) 2) Freedom? 3) Establish Democracy in M.E.? Aside Israel 4) Protect US economy (oil)? 5) Global War on Terrorism

OPEC : 

OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Dictate Price of oil / petroleum

US and Coalition Invade Iraq : 

US and Coalition Invade Iraq March 19, 2003 - Bush declares war March 20, 2003 - Operation Iraqi Freedom Decapitation Attack “Shock and Awe” air attack Attempt to kill Saddam Hussein and regime members in Baghdad Marines and Army invade and steam roll their way to Baghdad Superior weaponry

April 9, 2003 : 

April 9, 2003 Baghdad overtaken by Coalition; Saddam out of power and on the run. May 1, 2003 Declared end of major combat by Coalition forces

Problem: : 

Problem: Establish a New Government Loyalists to Saddam Baath Party

Slide 47: 

90% Saw USA as Occupying Force

4 British Soldiers Dead : 

4 British Soldiers Dead

Slide 50: 

Car Bombs

New Problem: : 

New Problem: Shia vs. Sunni Civil War Never a problem before Competing for political power; weak government

Green – Sunni IslamBlue – Shia Islam : 

Green – Sunni IslamBlue – Shia Islam

Slide 54: 

PM Maliki Shia led govt.

Slide 55: 

Sunni vs. Shia

Civilian Deaths (30-90,000) : 

Civilian Deaths (30-90,000) 30,000 to 90,000 dead

Car Bomb aimed at Shiite Market : 

Car Bomb aimed at Shiite Market

Slide 60: 

Suicide Bomber

+2,000,000 Refugees today : 

+2,000,000 Refugees today

Slide 65: 

Dec. 13, 2003 Near Tikrit

Slide 67: 

On Trial for Genocide

Slide 68: 

Hanged Dec. 30, 2006

Troop Surge of 2007 : 

Troop Surge of 2007 Troop increase in Iraq (160,000) created more stability for Iraqi government to operate effectively & reduce violence Was a controversial move in 2007 – 2008 “Because of the troop surge, the level of violence is significantly down. Civilian deaths are down. Sectarian killings are down. Attacks on American forces are down.” - President Bush

Misc. Info. : 

Misc. Info. Oil production down American oil companies securing contracts with Iraq Iraq has never known democracy Extremists Civil War possibility Sunni Shiite

Slide 71: 

All US forces out by 2011

Criticism : 

Criticism Widespread Violence No UN approval / No Coalition built WMD?? US Military Deaths Civilian Deaths World Disapproval US Reputation Similar to Vietnam?

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