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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY “Safety pay’s it doesn’t cost” Mathew Ebin P Sovichan

objectives : 

objectives Hazards Industrial Hazards Fire Accidents Mechanical Accidents Electrical Accidents Chemical and Pharmaceutical Accidents Risk Management


HAZARDS Hazards is a situation that posses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment CLASSIFICATION Chemical Hazards Electrical Hazards Mechanical Hazards Fire Hazards


FIRE ACCIDENTS Combustible material + O2 FIRE Exothermic reaction Combustion Slow combustion eg: cotton waste burning Rapid combustion eg: petroleum product Spontaneous combustion eg paint, scrap Cause of fire Over heating of electrical app Hot surface temperature Spark from metal to metal contact Carelessness

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STEPS TO BE TAKEN Don’t panic Raise the alarm Evacuate the premises Turn off the gas supply Attack the fire with extinguisher Or vacate the place In case of fire safe methods to be followed Stair cases only to be used for evacuation Exit doors should be closed after getting out Go down the stair case to the ground Walk do not run Encounter heavy smoke crawl on the floor, do not talk, cover the nose and mouth with a wet cloth




CHEMICAL HAZARDS Toxic Corrosive Irritant Carcinogenic Mutagenic

Pictograms used in chemical hazards : 

Pictograms used in chemical hazards

Effects of chemicals on exposure : 

Effects of chemicals on exposure Skin burn Ache Anthrax Ulcer in hand, nose etc Cancer Irritation on wind pipe

Safety design for Chemical Industry : 

Safety design for Chemical Industry Personal protective cloth Leak proof connections Piping and storage tank should be colour code Flammable & explosive chemicals proper distance criteria should be followed Pressure regulators and relief valves All materials should be resistance to chemicals Warning and Symbols

Pharmaceutical Hazards : 

Pharmaceutical Hazards Hazards from handling crude drugs and it’s extract a eg: Ipecacunha. Solvents eg: Benzene Alkaloids eg: scopolamine, emetine Toxic intermediate Final product eg: Local anaesthetic Miscellaneous Hazards Radiant energy Bacteria and viruses

Electrical Hazards : 

Electrical Hazards How Shocks occur? Current Level (In milliamperes) Probable Effect on Human Body 1 mA Slight tingling sensation. 5 mA Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing. 6-30 mA Painful shock, muscular control is lost. 50-150 mA Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contraction and death is possible 1000-4300 mA Muscular contraction and nerve damage occur. Death is most likely. 10,000 mA Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death

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The most frequent causes of electrical injury/death are: 1.Contact with power lines 2.Path to ground missing or discontinuous 3.Equipment not used in manner prescribed 4.Improper use of extension and flexible cords

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Safety Measures for electrical hazards Design a safer system Implement a safe electrical work program Observe work practice Use protective equipment Use warning labels Recheck the equipment everyday Heat producing electrical equipment Overhead electrical wire should have extra care Recheck the lines everyday Proper training to workers

Mechanical Hazards : 

Mechanical Hazards REASONS Insecurely fixed machines Worn and teared parts Failure of SOP Dangerous Parts Negligence Improper maintenance of equipment

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Safety measures for Mechanical hazards All machinery must be fenced or mechanical interlocking or photocell. Machine should be fitted with emergency shut down system.

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Turn key system for cleaning and for repairing. Control system override should be monitored. Operator must have a safe distance from the machine. Following strictly SOP. Stop and lock button for machines.

Hazards in LAB : 

Hazards in LAB FIRE Safety measures Locating fire extinguishers and other protective gears in lab Emergency equipment in hand Safety officer Alarm Evacuation and smoke detection system Escape route

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CHEMICAL HAZARDS Use glass ware when necessary Volatile solvent in fume cup board Laminar air flow Dust mask Eg: Carbon di sulphide in fuming cupboard Hydrogen sulphide : desensitizes the senses Highly toxic components swept away with carrier gas AAS highly intensive flame, Hydrogen, propane etc Follow SOP Measuring liquids Proper storage

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EQUIPMENTS HAZARDS Vaccum or pressure in lab causes hazards, screens Instruments should be properly earthed Gas chromatography with flame ionisation with hydrogen gas Check leakage Pipette corrosive reagents Pouring from the bottle SOP Heating Stirring Cooling

Risk management : 

Risk management Requires a risk management approach -identifying, removing, controlling potential hazards -involving all employees

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Risk management WHAT IS THE NEED? HOW TO DO?

Risk Management : 

Risk Management Identification of all hazards Assessment of hazard risk level Determination of reasonable methods to eliminate or control risks training & information Emergency provision -first aid, protective gear Safety officer

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Plant design, manufacture & use •Identify foreseeable hazards •Assess risks, including potential faults •Incorporate existing design standards •Control risks •Specify procedures & operator competencies


RISK MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY MEASURES Hazardous substances •Obtain material safety data sheets •Make safety data accessible •Appropriate labels •Avoid prohibited substances •Carcinogen processes •Employee health surveillance and records


REFERENCE How to practice GLP by P P Sharma. How to practice GMP by P P Sharma Industrial safety in pharma with emphasis on safety audit, Jr. Pharma Business & technology,July,2006 OSHA consultations Hazards management,

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