Final MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS ANALYSIS

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PROJECT MANEGMENT OPERATIONS ANALYSIS , maintenance planning - term maintenance activities maintenance projects MAINTENANCE ANALYSIS

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Maintenance Maintenance is all activities involved in keeping a system’s equipment in working order or operating condition Maintenance is concerned with avoiding or minimizing downtime or to avoid undesirable results due to system failure. British Standard Glossary of terms (3811:1993) defined maintenance as: the combination of all technical and administrative actions, including supervision actions, intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a required function.

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maintenance is a set of organised activities that are carried out in order to keep an item in its best operational condition with minimum cost acquired. Maintenance

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Maintenance Activities Activities of maintenance function could be either repair or replacement activities, which are necessary for an item to reach its acceptable productivity condition and these activities, should be carried out with a minimum possible cost.

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Maintenance History In the period of pre-World War II, people thought of maintenance as an added cost to the plant which did not increase the value of finished product. Therefore, the maintenance at that era was restricted to fixing the unit when it breaks because it was the cheapest alternative During and after World War II at the time when the advances of engineering and scientific technology developed, people developed other types of maintenance, which were much cheaper such as preventive maintenance. In addition, people in this era classified maintenance as a function of the production system.

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Nowadays, increased awareness of such issues as environment safety, quality of product and services makes maintenance one of the most important functions that contribute to the success of the industry. World-class companies are in continuous need of a very well organised maintenance programme to compete world-wide Maintenance History

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Important Function of Maintenance The most important function of maintenance is to provide system reliability that is to ensure that a specific machine continues to function for a specified period of time with minimum chances of breaking down and at minimum costs. This can be achieved through: increasing repair capabilities or speeding the repair activities to minimizing interruption. implementing preventive maintenance

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Strategic Importance of Maintenance Maintenance can avoid work stoppage and ensure that the lost of production time and cost are minimized. To keep the entire production system running smoothly with minimum interruption. To avoid loss of sales and profits Help reduce production cost such as idle labor cost and overtime cost

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To ensure that the entire workplace is a safe place to work for its employees. To established a competitive edge and to enhance good customer service. To ensure that the product meet the expected quality and specifications. To reduce cost of breakdown and repairs. Strategic Importance of Maintenance – cont.

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Good Maintenance Strategy Requires: Employee involvement Maintenance and reliability procedures To yield: Reduced inventory Improved quality Improved capacity Continuous improvement

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Maintenance Benefits Improved capacity Reduced inventory

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Maintenance Objectives Optimising Resources Utilisation Reduce Breakdowns Reduce Downtime Improving Equipment Efficiency Improving Inventory Control Implementing Cost Reduction

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Functions Primary functions Maintenance of existing plant and equipments Maintenance of existing plant buildings and grounds Equipment inspection and lubrication Utilities generation and distribution Alterations to existing equipments and buildings New installations of equipments and buildings

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Secondary functions Store keeping(keeping stock of spare parts) Plant protection including fire protection Waste disposal Insurance administration Pollution and noise control Any other services delegated towards maintenance by the plant management

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Impact of poor maintenance Production capacity: Machines idled by breakdowns cannot produce, thus the capacity of the system is reduced. Production costs: Labour cost per unit rises because of idle labour due to machine break downs. Production and service quality Poorly maintained equipment produce low quality products. Equipments that have not been properly maintained have frequent breakdowns and cannot provide adequate service to customers.

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Employee or customer safety Worn out equipment is likely to fail at any moment and these failures can cause injuries to the workers, working on those equipment. Customer satisfaction When production equipment break down, products often can not be produced according to the master schedules, due to work stoppages. This will lead to delayed deliveries of products to the customers. Impact of poor maintenance

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Area of Maintenance Civil Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical maintenance

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Area of Maintenance Civil maintenance Building construction and maintenance, maintenance service facilities such as water, gas, steam, compressed air, heating and ventilating, air conditioning, painting, plumbing and carpentry work. Mechanical maintenance Maintaining machines and equipments, transport vehicles, material handling equipments, steam generators, boilers, compressors and furnaces. Lubricating the machines is also the mechanical maintenance work. Electrical maintenance Maintaining electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switch gears, motors, telephone systems, electrical installations, lighting, fans, battery charging.

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Types of Maintenance Run to Failure Maintenance (RTF) Preventive Maintenance (PM) Corrective Maintenance (CM) Improvement Maintenance (IM) Predictive Maintenance (PDM)

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UNPLANNED MAINTENANCE (REACTIVE) BREAKDOWN EMERGENCY PLANNED MAINTENANCE (PROACTIVE) CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE REMEDIAL DEFERRED PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE CONDITION - BASED STATISTICAL - BASED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ROUTINE RUNNING DESIGN - OUT ENGINEERING SERVICES WINDOW IMPROVEMENT MAINTENANCE SHUTDOWN CORRECTIVE SHUTDOWN PREVENTIVE SHUTDOWN IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITY Maintenance

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Run to Failure Maintenance (RTF) The required repair, replacement, or restore action performed on a machine or a facility after the occurrence of a failure in order to bring this machine or facility to at least its minimum acceptable condition. It is the oldest type of maintenance. It is subdivided into two types: Emergency maintenance: it is carried out as fast as possible in order to bring a failed machine or facility to a safe and operationally efficient condition. Breakdown maintenance: it is performed after the occurrence of an advanced considered failure for which advanced provision has been made in the form of repair method, spares, materials, labour and equipment .

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Run to Failure Maintenance (RTF) Disadvantages: Its activities are expensive in terms of both direct and indirect cost. Using this type of maintenance, the occurrence of a failure in a component can cause failures in other components in the same equipment, which leads to low production availability. Its activities are very difficult to plan and schedule in advance.

RTF: 

RTF This type of maintenance is useful in the following situations: The failure of a component in a system is unpredictable. The cost of performing run to failure maintenance activities is lower than performing other activities of other types of maintenance. The equipment failure priority is too low in order to include the activities of preventing it within the planned maintenance budget.

Preventive Maintenance(PM): 

Preventive Maintenance(PM) It is a set of activities that are performed on plant equipment, machinery, and systems before the occurrence of a failure in order to protect them and to prevent or eliminate any degradation in their operating conditions. British Standard 3811:1993 Glossary of terms defined preventive maintenance as: The maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals or according to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the probability of failure or the degradation of the functioning and the effects limited.

Preventive Maintenance(PM): 

Preventive Maintenance(PM) The advantage of applying preventive maintenance activities is to satisfy most of maintenance objectives. Preventive Maintenance(PM

Preventive Maintenance(PM): 

Preventive Maintenance(PM) The factors that affect the efficiency of this type of maintenance: The need for an adequate number of staff in the maintenance department in order to perform this type of maintenance. The right choice of production equipment and machinery that is suitable for the working environment and that can tolerate the workload of this environment. The required staff qualifications and skills, which can be gained through training. The support and commitment from executive management to the PM programme. The proper planning and scheduling of PM programme. The ability to properly apply the PM programme

Preventive Maintenance(PM): 

Preventive Maintenance(PM) It is good for those machines and facilities which their failure would cause serious production losses. Its aim is to maintain machines and facilities in such a condition that breakdowns and emergency repairs are minimised. Its activities include replacements, adjustments, major overhauls, inspections and lubrications.

Preventive Maintenance(PM): 

Preventive Maintenance(PM) Researchers subdivided preventive maintenance into different kinds according to the nature of its activities: Routine maintenance which includes those maintenance activities that are repetitive and periodic in nature such as lubrication, cleaning, and small adjustment. Running maintenance which includes those maintenance activities that are carried out while the machine or equipment is running and they represent those activities that are performed before the actual preventive maintenance activities take place.

Preventive Maintenance(PM): 

Preventive Maintenance(PM) Opportunity maintenance which is a set of maintenance activities that are performed on a machine or a facility when an unplanned opportunity exists during the period of performing planned maintenance activities to other machines or facilities. Window maintenance which is a set of activities that are carried out when a machine or equipment is not required for a definite period of time. Shutdown preventive maintenance , which is a set of preventive maintenance activities that are carried out when the production line is in total stoppage situation.

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) In this type, actions such as repair, replacement, or restore will be carried out after the occurrence of a failure in order to eliminate the source of this failure or reduce the frequency of its occurrence. In the British Standard 3811:1993 Glossary of terms, corrective maintenance is defined as: the maintenance carried out after recognition and intended to put an item into a state in which it can perform a required function.

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) Break Down Emergency Repairs Urgent Not possible to Control You are controlled by the equipment Planned Maintenance Prepared Properly Possible to Control You control the Equipment

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) This type of maintenance is subdivided into three categories: Remedial maintenance , which is a set of activities that are performed to eliminate the source of failure without interrupting the continuity of the production process. The way to carry out this type of corrective maintenance is by taking the item to be corrected out of the production line and replacing it with reconditioned item or transferring its workload to its redundancy.

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) Deferred maintenance , which is a set of corrective maintenance activities that are not immediately initiated after the occurrence of a failure but are delayed in such a way that will not affect the production process. Shutdown corrective maintenance , which is a set of corrective maintenance activities that are performed when the production line is in total stoppage situation.

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) The main objectives of corrective maintenance are the maximisation of the effectiveness of all critical plant systems, the elimination of breakdowns, the elimination of unnecessary repair, and the reduction of the deviations from optimum operating conditions. The difference between corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance is that for the corrective maintenance, the failure should occur before any corrective action is taken. Corrective maintenance is different from run to failure maintenance in that its activities are planned and regularly taken out to keep plant’s machines and equipment in optimum operating condition.

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) The way to perform corrective maintenance activities is by conducting four important steps: 1. Fault detection. 2. Fault isolation. 3. Fault elimination. 4. Verification of fault elimination. In the fault elimination step several actions could be taken such as adjusting, aligning, calibrating, reworking, removing, replacing or renovation.

Corrective Maintenance (CM): 

Corrective Maintenance (CM) Corrective maintenance has several prerequisites in order to be carried out effectively: Accurate identification of incipient problems. Effective planning which depends on the skills of the planners, the availability of well developed maintenance database about standard time to repair, a complete repair procedures, and the required labour skills, specific tools, parts and equipment. Proper repair procedures. Adequate time to repair. Verification of repair.

Improvement Maintenance (IM): 

Improvement Maintenance (IM) It aims at reducing or eliminating entirely the need for maintenance. This type of maintenance is subdivided into three types as follows: 1. Design-out maintenance which is a set of activities that are used to eliminate the cause of maintenance, simplify maintenance tasks, or raise machine performance from the maintenance point of view by redesigning those machines and facilities which are vulnerable to frequent occurrence of failure and their long term repair or replacement cost is very expensive.

Improvement Maintenance (IM): 

Improvement Maintenance (IM) 2.Engineering services which includes construction and construction modification, removal and installation, and rearrangement of facilities. 3. Shutdown improvement maintenance which is a set of improvement maintenance activities that are performed while the production line is in a complete stoppage situation.

Predictive Maintenance (PDM): 

Predictive Maintenance (PDM) Predictive maintenance is a set of activities that detect changes in the physical condition of equipment (signs of failure) in order to carry out the appropriate maintenance work for maximising the service life of equipment without increasing the risk of failure. It is classified into two kinds according to the methods of detecting the signs of failure: Condition-based predictive maintenance Statistical-based predictive maintenance

Predictive Maintenance (PDM): 

Predictive Maintenance (PDM) Condition-based predictive maintenance depends on continuous or periodic condition monitoring equipment to detect the signs of failure. Statistical-based predictive maintenance depends on statistical data from the meticulous recording of the stoppages of the in-plant items and components in order to develop models for predicting failures.

Predictive Maintenance (PDM): 

Predictive Maintenance (PDM) The drawback of predictive maintenance is that it depends heavily on information and the correct interpretation of the information. Some researchers classified predictive maintenance as a type of preventive maintenance.

Predictive Maintenance (PDM): 

Predictive Maintenance (PDM) The main difference between preventive maintenance and predictive maintenance is that predictive maintenance uses monitoring the condition of machines or equipment to determine the actual mean time to failure whereas preventive maintenance depends on industrial average life statistics.

Maintenance Cost Example: 

Maintenance Cost Example Should the firm contract for maintenance on their printers? Number of Breakdown Number of Months that breakdown Occured 1 2 2 4 3 6 4 8 Total:20 Average cost of breakdown = $300 Use service contract - cost RM150 per month and average breakdown is 1 per month .

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Maintenance Cost Example 1.Compute the expected number of breakdowns Number of Breakdown Frequency Number of Breakdown Frequency 0 2/20 = .1 2 6/20 = .3 1 8/20 = .4 3 4/20 = .2 ∑ Number of breakdowns Expected number of breakdowns Corresponding frequency = x = (0)(.1) + (1)(.4) + (2)(.3) + (3)(.2) = 1.6 breakdowns per month

Maintenance Cost Example: 

Maintenance Cost Example 2.Compute the expected breakdown cost per month with no preventive maintenance = (1.6)($300) = $480 per month Expected breakdown cost Expected number of breakdowns Cost per breakdown = x

Maintenance Cost Example: 

Maintenance Cost Example Compute the cost of preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance cost Cost of expected breakdowns if service contract signed Cost of service contract = + = (1 breakdown/month)($300) + $150/month = $450 per month

Failure Development : 

Failure Development INDIVIDUAL LIFE TIME Machines, spare parts, all types of equipment, have their own individual life time. The individual life time is different from part to part and is influenced by the quality of the product but also by other outside factors such as environment, handling etc. Some failures are occurring after a certain, expected time, and can almost be predicted. Some failures are occurring completely unexpected.

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Random Failures Non-Predictable Predictable

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Failure Developing time(FDT) Some failures either they are random or regular, have longer or shorter failure development time. The failure development time is the deterioration time from the moment condition departs from the normal condition until the moment of break down occurs. Failures with failure development time is easier to handle than the failures without failure development time. Shorter FDT – Continuous on line condition monitoring has to be applied Longer FDT – Off-line condition monitoring has to be applied

Total Productivity Maintenance : 

Total Productivity Maintenance Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) TPM is a way of organizing maintenance to support productivity & quality through increased equipment efficiency and to reduce costs. TPM concept means that all employees work in small groups to maximize the improvement of equipment efficiency. Operators are working independently with all maintenance activities of their own equipment and have also the total responsibility of operation and maintenance.

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Fundamental Goals of TPM Increased productivity and quality Zero defects Reduced cost of maintenance and production Increased motivation among all employees Zero accident Shorter lead time Zero unplanned stops Development of staff through training Improvement of work environment

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TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE GOAL Increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. 2. Hold emergency & unscheduled maintenance to a minimum. Maintenance is no – longer regarded as a Non – Profit activity.

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Why we need TPM ? The major objectives of the TPM are listed as under : Avoid wastage in quickly changing environment. Reduce Cost of Manufacturing. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. Goods send to Customers must be “ non – defective”

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TPM TARGETS PRODUCTION I). Obtain Minimum 80% Overall Production Efficiency ii). Obtain Minimum 90% Overall Equipment Effectiveness iii). Run the Machine during lunchtime QUALITY Operate in a manner, so that there are no customer complaint COST Reduce the manufacturing cost by ----- Per Cent DELIVERY Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer SAFETY Maintain an accident free environment MULTY TASK Develop multi skilled & flexible workers.

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Motives of TPM Adoption of Life – Cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipments Improving Productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by Job – Enlargement Formation of team of volunteers for activities viz, cause of failure, possible reduction of cycle time; and equipment / process modifications. Uniqueness of TPM The major difference between TPM and other concepts is that the operators are also made to involve in the maintenance process.

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Direct Benefits of TPM Increase Productivity and Overall Plant Efficiency by 1.5 to 2 times Rectify customers complaints Reduce manufacturing cost by ….percent Satisfy the customers needs by 100% Reduce accidents Comply with all relevant governmental regulations Indirect Benefits of TPM Higher confidence level among the workers Keep the work place clean, neat and attractive Favorable change in the attitude of the operators Achieve goals by working as Team Share knowledge and experience The worker get a feeling of OWNING the machine

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Computerized Maintenance Management System CMMS is a computerized system to assist with the effective and efficient management of maintenance activities through the application of computer technology.

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Computerized Maintenance Management System or CMMS has been developed to organize, expatiate and monitor all maintenance activities. CMMS are usually fragmented into inventory, preventive maintenance and work order tracking. As CMMS program have to be integrated, allowing control of all the major areas of maintenance in one system. The system vary in size allowing organization with 5 to 5000 craft workers to be cost effective in using them. The need for and use of a CMMS is not specific to any one industry or type of application. CMMS are being used by federal, state, municipal organizations, all types and sizes of manufacturing and process plants, hotels, colleges and universities and so on. Any facility or corporation that has a maintenance workforce is a potential user of a CMM system. However, each organization will have some differences in their requirements to be cost effective in using them.

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The Need of a CMMS Today The Safety Factor – For Fires in the airport have been attributed to bad maintenance. Many facilities have to review their maintenance system if there are to bring creditability to their maintenance departments. 2) The ISO Factor - Many manufacturing companies are implementing ISO. A maintenance system is now a requirement under ISO 9002. 3) The Productivity Factor - In an effort to have an edge over their competitors, many companies are turning toward TQM (Total Quality Management) of which TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) is a major program. One of the key element in TPM is a maintenance system. 4) The Cost Factor -An effective maintenance management program results in savings in maintenance time and costs, improves productivity

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THE IMPACT OF CMMS Reduce equipment downtime through the benefits of regular scheduled preventive maintenance Increased equipment life Increased craft productivity Reduction in stores inventory Reduction in emergency and critical maintenance. Provide historical records to assist in maintenance planning and budgeting Provide maintenance reports in a format that is required by the user

CASE STUDY: 

CASE STUDY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY National Institute of Fashion Technology was set up in 1986 under the aegis of the Ministry of Textiles. It has emerged as the premier Institute of Design Management and Technology. It offers various courses in textile and leather design, technology, management and merchandising. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY National Institute of Fashion Technology was set up in 1986 under the aegis of the Ministry of Textiles. It has emerged as the premier Institute of Design Management and Technology. It offers various courses in textile and leather design, technology, management and merchandising. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY National Institute of Fashion Technology was set up in 1986 under the aegis of the Ministry of Textiles. It has emerged as the premier Institute of Design Management and Technology. It offers various courses in textile and leather design, technology, management and merchandising.

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SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths Continuous innovation in technology. Continuous improvement in design development specifically for domestic market. Emphasis on new product development. Consideration of comfort along with technological development Weaknesses Lack quick innovation. Less design in terms of silhouettes. Heavy dependency on footwear sales. Lifestyle collection not getting much Attention. Opportunities Increasing innovative labs for technology. Increasing awareness for different technologies among the consumers. Threats Variety in design in ADIDAS products. Increasing product range of NIKE. Good technology with competitors. Better supplier base of Competitor.

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Recommendations • Maintenance is a major cost and must be planned for during the entire life cycle. • Design workflow —use information-hiding techniques • Implementation workflow — good coding style • Documentation must be complete, correct, and current. • During maintenance, maintainability must not be compromised. • Maintenance is so critical and challenging that the best people should be put on the task and rewarded accordingly.

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CONCLUSION The above report has briefly focused on the various aspects of maintenance management. Maintenance is expected to play even much bigger role in years to follow, as industries worldwide are going through an increasing and stiff competition and increased automation of plants. The down time cost for such systems is expected to be very high. To meet these challenges, maintenance has to use latest technology and management skills in all spheres of activities to perform its effective role in profitability of the company. Maintenance is expected to play even much bigger role in years to follow, as industries worldwide are going through an increasing and stiff competition and increased automation of plants. The down time cost for such systems is expected to be very high. To meet these challenges, maintenance has to use latest technology and management skills in all spheres of activities to perform its effective role in profitability of the construction company.

Thank you.. Any Question????: 

Thank you.. Any Question????