Masai Mara National Park

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Flickr (greenravine) Masai Mara National Reserve By Jennifer Kalil Wikimedia Commons (Tubes)

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Flickr (colinjackson1972) Flickr (hmhegle79) Mara River

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Flickr (Terri O’Sullivan)

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Flickr (VBzi) Keekorok Lodge Flickr (mattberlin23) Mara Serena Lodge

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Wikimedia Commons (Dan Lundberg) Wikimedia Commons (Whit Welles) Flickr (left hand) Game Drives Hot Air Balloon Safaris Flickr (Stewart Richards)

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Flickr (astorg)

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Flickr (Kevin H.)

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Flickr (hmhegle79) Flickr (The Dilly Lama)

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Flickr (hmhegle79) Flickr (hmhegle79) Flickr (Paul Mannix) Flickr (Stewart Richards)

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Flickr (Lip Kee) Flickr (Lip Kee) Flickr (Lip Kee) Flickr (Lip Kee) Bubulcus ibis Ardea melanocephala Sagittarius serpentarius Aquila rapax

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Flickr (Ai@ce)

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Flickr (jschinker)

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Flickr (Temple Travels)

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Flickr (hmhegle79)

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Flickr (hmhegle79)

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Flickr (hmhegle79) Flickr (hmhegle79)

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Flickr (Lip Kee) Flickr (Paul Mannix)

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Flickr (Tastynuggets) Flickr (Metagrrl) Flickr (Stewart Richards)

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Flickr (Paul Mannix) Flickr (Paul Mannix) Flickr (Paul Mannix)

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Wikimedia Commons (Snake3yes) Flickr (Frederic Salein)

References:

References Boone, Randall, B., Simon J. Thirgood, and J. Grant. C. Hopcraft. “Serengeti Wildbeest Migratory Patterns Modeled From Rainfall and New Vegetation Growth.” Ecology 87 (2006): 1987-1994. Print. Khaemba, W.M., and A. Stein. “Spatial Statistics for Modeling of Abundance and Distribution of Wildlife Species in The Masai Mara Ecosystem, Kenya.” Environmental and Ecological Statistics 8 (2001): 345-360. Print. Lamprey, Richard H. and Robin S. Reid. “Expansion of Human Settlement in Kenya’s Maasai Mara: What Future for Pastoralism and Wildlife?” Journal of Biogeography 31 (2004): 997-1032. Print. Michler, Ian. Kenya & Tanzania The Insider’s Guide . South Africa: Struik Publishers, 2006. Print. Mogenson, Neils L., Joseph Ogutu, and Torben Dabelsteen. “The Effects of Pastoralism and Protection on Lion Behavior, Demography and Space Use in the Mara Region of Kenya.” African Zoology 46 (2011): 78-87. Print. Mukinya, John G. “Feeding and Drinking Habits of the Black Rhinoceros in Masai Mara Game Reserve.” East African Wildlife Society 15 (1977): 125-138. Print.

References Continued:

References Continued Ottichilo, Wilbur K. “Comparison of Sample and Total Counts of Elephant and Buffalo in Masai Mara, Kenya.” East African Wildlife Society 37 (1999): 435-438. Print. Ottichilo, Wilbur K., Jan de Leeuw, Andrew K. Skidmore, Herbert T.H. Prins, and Mohammed Y. Said. “Population Trends of Large Non-migratory Wild Herbivores and Livestock in the Masai Mara.” East African Wild Life Society 38 (2000): 202-216. Print. Ogutu, J.O., and H.T. Dublin. “Spatial Dynamics of Lions and Their Prey Along an Environmental Gradient.” African Journal of Ecology 42 (2004): 8-22. Print. Pokines, James and Julian C. Kerbis Peterhans. “Spotted Hyena ( Crocuta crocuta) Den Use and Taphonomy in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya.” Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007): 1914-1931. Print. Trillo, Richard. Kenya The Rough Guide . New York: Rough Guides Ltd., 1996. Print. Tripadvisor. http:www.tripadvisor.com/ (2011): Tripadvisor, LLC. Web. Walpole, Matthew J., Moriaso Nabaala, and Charles Matankory. “Status of the Mara Woodlands in Kenya.” African Jounal of Ecology 42 (2004): 180-188. Print.

Image Citations:

Image Citations Ai@ce. Kenya . 2009. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 20 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/aiace/3213104181>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) astorg. A Maasai Village . 2011. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 20 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/astorg/6031787815>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) colinjackson1972. Mara River Aerial . 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 20 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/8253719@N04/4317997103/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) greenravine. Mara_Map . 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/martye_green/2355488932/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) H. Kevin. Masai Livestock Farm . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 19 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/kevharb/4321452339>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Beautiful View. 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4749446597>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Elephants. 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4749446883/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License)

Image Citations Continued:

Image Citations Continued hmhegle79. Giraffes . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4750086438>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Lion . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4749441803>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Lions Hunting . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4750088102>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Lions under an acacia tree . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4750088784>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Masai Mara . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 20 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4750091436/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) hmhegle79. Wildebeest . 2010. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/hegeh/4750091132>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) jschinker. Masai Mara. 2009. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 19 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/63873121@N00/3843902730>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License)

Image Citations Continued:

Image Citations Continued Lip Kee. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) . 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2831994712/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Lip Kee. Black headed Heron (Ardea melanocephala) juvenile . 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2831994940>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Lip Kee. Secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius). 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2830498060>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Lip Kee. Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta) . 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2904604410/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Lip Kee. Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax). 2008. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2832219949/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Lundberg, Dan. A Masai Mara Sunset. 2007. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1993_158- 11A_Masai_Mara_sunset.jpg>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Mannix, Paul. Hyena pup, Masai Mara, Kenya. 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulmannix/398884953/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License)

Image Citations Continued:

Image Citations Continued Mannix, Paul. Lion cub, Masai Mara, Kenya . 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulmannix/398871765/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Mannix, Paul. Lionesses, Masai Mara, Kenya . 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulmannix/398871251>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Mannix, Paul. Warthog, Masai Mara, Kenya. 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulmannix/398867370>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Mannix, Paul. Warthog with gazelle, Masai Mara, Kenya . 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulmannix/398866935>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) mattberlin23. Mara Serena Lodge Bungalows . 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web 16 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/mattberlin23/5516646554/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Metagrrl. Lioness Watching us from the Grass. 2005. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 20 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinah/104845831/). (Use of image by Creative Commons License)

Image Citations Continued:

Image Citations Continued O’Sullivan, Terri. Entrance to the Mara . 2009. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 19 November 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/terriosullivan/3584949577>. (Use of images by Creative Commons License) Richards, Stewart. Cohort . 2011. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/left-hand/6173355894>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Richards, Stewart. Elephant in the Long Grass . 2011. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/left-hand/6172827287>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Richards, Stewart. National Bird . 2011. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/left-hand/6172827723>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Richards, Stewart. Play with me. 2011. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/left-hand/6173353878>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Salein, Frederic. Baboons in Masai Mara. 2007. Flickr, Yahoo. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/fredericsalein/2995061677/>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License) Snake3yes. Topi in Masai Mara. 2008. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 9 October 2011. < http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Topi_in_Masai_Mara.jpg>. (Use of image by Creative Commons License)

For More Information:

For More Information Cleaveland, S., M.G.J. Appel, W.S.K. Chalmers, C. Chillingworth, M. Kaare, and C. Dye. “Serological and Demographic Evidence for Domestic Dogs as a Source of Canine Distemper Virus Infection for Serengeti Wildlife.” Veterinary Microbiology 72 (2000): 217-227. Print. Engh, Anne L., Keith G. Nelson, Robert Peebles, Alexander D. Hernandez, Karen K. Hubbard, and Kay E. Holekamp. “Coproogic Survey of Parasites of Spotted Hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta) in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39 (2003): 224-227. Print. Ferroglio, E., E. Wambwa, M. Castiello, A. Trisciuoglio, A. Prouteau, E. Pradere, S. Ndungu, and D. De Meneghi. “Antibodies to Neospora caninum in Wild Animals from Kenya, East Africa.” Veterinary Parasitology 118 (2003): 43-49. Print. Kanga, Erustus M., Joseph O. Ogutu, Han Olff, and Peter Santema. “Population Trend and Distribution of the Vulnerable Common Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in the Mara Region of Kenya.” Fauna and Flora International 45 (2011): 20-27. Print. Kolowski, J.M. and K.E. Holekamp. “Effects of an Open Refuse Pit on Space Use Patterns of Spotted Hyenas.” African Journal of Ecology 46 (2008): 341-349. Print. Kolowski, J.M. and K.E. Holekamp. “Ecological and Anthropogenic Influences on Space Use By Spotted Hyaenas.” Journal of Zoology 277 (2009): 23-36. Print.

For More Information Continued:

For More Information Continued Nyariki, D.M., A.W. Mwang’ombe, and D.M. Thompson. “Land Use Change and Livestock Production Challenges in an Integrated System: The Masai-Mara Ecosystem, Kenya.” Journal of Human Ecology 26 (2009): 163-173. Print. Ogutu, J.O., and H.T. Dublin. “Demography of lions in relation to prey and habitat in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya.” East African Wild Life Society 40 (2002): 120-129. Print. Pangle, Wiline M. and Kay E. Holekamp. “Lethal and Nonlethal Anthropogenic Effects on Spotted Hyenas in the Masai Mara National Reserve.” Journal of Mammalogy 91 (2010): 154-164. Print. Salvatori, V., F. Egunyn, A.K. Skidmore, J. de Leeuw, and H.A.M. Van Gils. “The Effects of Fire and Grazing Pressure on Vegetation Cover and Small Mammal Populations in the Masai Mara National Reserve.” East African Wild Life Society 39 (2001): 200-204. Print. Serneels, Suzanne and Eric F. Lambin. “Impact of Land-use Changes on the Wildebeest Migration in the Northern Part of the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem.” Journal of Biogeography 28 (2001): 391-407. Print. Van Essen, L.D., J. du P. Bothma, N. van Rooyen, and W.S.W. Trollope. “Assessment of the Woody Vegetation of Ol Choro Oiroua, Masai Mara, Kenya.” East African Wild Life Society 40 (2002): 76-83. Print.

For More Information Continued:

For More Information Continued Van Meter, Page E., Jeffrey A. French, Stephanie M. Dloniak, Heather E. Watts, Joseph M. Kolowski, and Kay E. Holekamp. “Fecal Glucocorticoids Reflect Socio-ecological and Anthropogenic Stressors in the Lives of Wild Spotted Hyenas.” Hormones and Behavior 55 (2009).329-337. Print. Virani, Munir Z., Corinne Kendall, Peter Njoroge, and Simon Thomsett. “Major Declines in the Abundance of Vultures and Other Scavenging Raptors in and Around the Masai Mara Ecosystem, Kenya.” Biological Conservation 144 (2011): 746-752. Print. Walpole, Matthew J. “Factors Affecting Black Rhino Monitoring in Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya.” African Journal of Ecology 40 (2002): 18-25. Print. Watts, H.E. and K.E. Holekamp. “Interspecific Competition Influences Reproduction in Spotted Hyenas.” Journal of Zoology 276 (2008): 402-410. Print.

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