Myers’ Psychology for AP* : Myers’ Psychology for AP* David G. Myers *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. PowerPoint Presentation Slides
by Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Worth Publishers, © 2010 Unit 2:Research Methods: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science : Unit 2:Research Methods: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Unit Overview : Unit Overview The Need for Psychological Science
How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. The Need for Psychology Science : The Need for Psychology Science Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias : Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias
“I knew it all along”
“Out of sight, out of mind”
“Absence makes the heart grow fonder” Overconfidence : Overconfidence Overconfidence
Together with hindsight bias, can lead to overestimate our intuition The Scientific Attitude : The Scientific Attitude Three main components
Skeptically scrutinize competing ideas
Open-minded humility before nature Critical Thinking : Critical Thinking Critical Thinking
Discerns hidden values
Assesses conclusions How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? : How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? The Scientific Method : The Scientific Method Theory
Can be confirmed or refuted
Replication (repeat) The Scientific Method : The Scientific Method A good theory is useful if it:
Effectively organizes a range of self-reports and observations
Implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory DescriptionThe Case Study : DescriptionThe Case Study Case Study
Suggest further study
Cannot discern general truths DescriptionThe Survey : DescriptionThe Survey Survey
Looks at many cases at once
Representative sample DescriptionThe Survey : DescriptionThe Survey Sampling
Random Sample DescriptionNaturalistic Observation : DescriptionNaturalistic Observation Naturalistic Observation
Does not explain behavior Correlation : Correlation Correlation (correlation coefficient)
How well does A predict B
Positive versus negative correlation
Strength of the correlation
-1.0 to +1.0
Scatterplot Slide 33: Correlation Slide 34: Correlation Slide 35: Correlation Slide 36: Correlation Slide 37: Correlation Slide 38: Correlation Slide 39: Correlation Slide 40: Correlation Slide 41: Correlation CorrelationCorrelation and Causation : CorrelationCorrelation and Causation Correlation helps predict
Does not imply cause and effect CorrelationIllusory Correlations : CorrelationIllusory Correlations Illusory Correlation
Perceived non-existent correlation
A random coincidence CorrelationPerceiving Order in Random Events : CorrelationPerceiving Order in Random Events Comes from our need to make sense out of the world
Poker hand Experimentation : Experimentation Experiment
Can isolate cause and effect
Control of factors
Manipulation of the factor(s) of interest
Hold constant (“controlling”) factors ExperimentationRandom Assignment : ExperimentationRandom Assignment Random assignment
Eliminates alternative explanations
Different from random sample ExperimentationRandom Assignment : ExperimentationRandom Assignment Blind (uninformed)
Placebo Effect ExperimentationRandom Assignment : ExperimentationRandom Assignment Groups
Receives the treatment (independent variable)
Does not receive the treatment ExperimentationIndependent and Dependent Variables : ExperimentationIndependent and Dependent Variables Independent Variable
Effect of random assignment on confounding variables
What is being measured Slide 54: Experimental Design Slide 55: Experimental Design Slide 56: Experimental Design Slide 57: Experimental Design Slide 58: Comparing Research Methods Slide 59: Comparing Research Methods Slide 60: Comparing Research Methods Slide 61: Comparing Research Methods Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life : Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Describing DataMeasures of Central Tendency : Describing DataMeasures of Central Tendency Mode (occurs the most)
Mean (arithmetic average)
Median (middle score) Describing DataMeasures of Variability : Describing DataMeasures of Variability Range
Standard Deviation Describing DataMeasures of Variability : Describing DataMeasures of Variability Normal Curve (bell shaped) Making InferencesWhen Is an Observed Difference Reliable? : Making InferencesWhen Is an Observed Difference Reliable? Representative samples are better than biased samples
Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable
More cases are better than fewer Making InferencesWhen Is a Difference Significant? : Making InferencesWhen Is a Difference Significant? Statistical significance
The averages are reliable
The differences between averages is relatively large
Does imply the importance of the results Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology : Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Psychology Applied : Psychology Applied Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?
The principles, not the research findings, help explain behavior Psychology Applied : Psychology Applied Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?
Influence of culture on behavior
More similarities than differences Ethics in Research : Ethics in Research Ethics in animal research
Reasons for using animals in research
Safeguards for animal use Ethics in Research : Ethics in Research Ethics in human research
Protect from harm and discomfort
Debriefing The End : The End Teacher Information : Teacher Information Types of Files
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Germantown High School
Germantown, WI 53022
firstname.lastname@example.org Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print) : Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print) xxx
xxx Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print) : Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished Definition Slide : Definition Slide = add definition here Definition Slides : Definition Slides Hindsight Bias : Hindsight Bias = the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Also known as the “I knew it all along” phenomenon. Critical Thinking : Critical Thinking = thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Theory : Theory = an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Hypothesis : Hypothesis = a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Operational Definition : Operational Definition = a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
i.e. Human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. Replication : Replication = repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Case Study : Case Study = an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Survey : Survey = a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group. Population : Population = all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
Note: Except for national studies, this does NOT refer to a country’s whole population. Random Sample : Random Sample = a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Naturalistic Observation : Naturalistic Observation = observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. Correlation : Correlation = a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Correlation Coefficient : Correlation Coefficient = a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1). Scatterplot : Scatterplot = a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). Illusory Correlation : Illusory Correlation = the perception of a relationship where none exists. Experiment : Experiment = a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. Random Assigment : Random Assigment = assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. Double-Blind Procedure : Double-Blind Procedure = an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. Placebo Effect : Placebo Effect = experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent. Experimental Group : Experimental Group = in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Control Group : Control Group = in an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of treatment. Independent Variable : Independent Variable = the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. Confounding Variable : Confounding Variable = a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment. Dependent Variable : Dependent Variable = the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. Mode : Mode = the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. Mean : Mean = the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. Median : Median = the middle score in a distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it. Range : Range = the difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution. Standard Deviation : Standard Deviation = a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. Normal Curve : Normal Curve = a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scored fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes. Statistical Significance : Statistical Significance = a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. Culture : Culture = the enduring behavior, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Informed Consent : Informed Consent = an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate. Debriefing : Debriefing = the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.