APPsych2e_LecturePPTs_Unit14

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Myer's Unit 14

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David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, © 2014 Myers’ Psychology for AP ® , 2e AP ® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board ® , which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

Unit 14: Social Psychology:

Unit 14: Social Psychology

Unit 15 - Overview:

Unit 15 - Overview Attribution, Attitudes, and Actions Conformity and Obedience Group Behavior Prejudice and Discrimination Aggression Attraction Altruism, Conflict, and Peacemaking Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

Module 74: Attribution, Attitudes, and Actions:

Module 74: Attribution, Attitudes, and Actions

Introduction:

Introduction Social Psychology

The Fundamental Attribution Error:

The Fundamental Attribution Error

The Fundamental Attribution Error:

The Fundamental Attribution Error Attribution theory Dispositional vs. situational attribution Fundamental attribution error Self-serving bias

Attitudes and Actions:

Attitudes and Actions

Attitudes and Actions Attitudes Affect Actions:

Attitudes and Actions Attitudes Affect Actions Attitude Central route persuasion Peripheral route persuasion

Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes: The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon:

Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes: The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon “start small and build”

Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes: Role Playing Affects Attitudes:

Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes: Role Playing Affects Attitudes Role-Playing Affects Attitudes Role Stanford prison study Abu Ghraib

Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes: Cognitive Dissonance: Relief from Tension:

Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes: Cognitive Dissonance: Relief from Tension Cognitive Dissonance: Relief From Tension Cognitive dissonance theory “Attitudes follow behavior”

Module 75: Conformity and Obedience:

Module 75: Conformity and Obedience

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures:

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Automatic Mimicry:

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Automatic Mimicry Chameleon effect Mood linkage

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms:

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms Conformity Solomon Asch study

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms:

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms:

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms Conditions That Strengthen Conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure Group has at least three people Group is unanimous One admires the group’s status One has made no prior commitment Others in group observe one’s behavior One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms:

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures Conformity and Social Norms Reasons for Conforming Normative social influence Informational social influence

Obedience: Following Orders:

Obedience: Following Orders

Obedience: Following Orders:

Obedience: Following Orders Obedience Milgram’s studies on obedience Procedure Results Ethics Follow up studies

Obedience: Following Orders:

Obedience: Following Orders

Obedience: Following Orders:

Obedience: Following Orders

Obedience: Following Orders:

Obedience: Following Orders

Obedience: Following Orders:

Obedience: Following Orders

Obedience: Following Orders Lessons From the Obedience Studies:

Obedience: Following Orders Lessons From the Obedience Studies Ordinary people being corrupted by an evil situation

Module 76: Group Behavior:

Module 76: Group Behavior

Social Facilitation:

Social Facilitation

Social Facilitation:

Social Facilitation Social Facilitation Task difficulty Expertise effects Crowding effects

Social Loafing:

Social Loafing

Social Loafing:

Social Loafing Social Loafing Reasons why? Less accountability View themselves as dispensable

Deinviduation:

Deinviduation

Deinviduation:

Deinviduation Deindividuation

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization Group Polarization

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization

Groupthink:

Groupthink

Groupthink:

Groupthink Groupthink Bay of Pigs Challenger explosion

The Power of Individuals:

The Power of Individuals

The Power of Individuals:

The Power of Individuals Social control vs personal control Minority influence

Cultural Influences:

Cultural Influences

Cultural Influences:

Cultural Influences Culture Culture within animals Culture in humans

Cultural Influences Variation Across Cultures:

Cultural Influences Variation Across Cultures Norm Culture shock Pace of life

Cultural Influences Variation Over Time:

Cultural Influences Variation Over Time Changes over the generations

Module 77: Prejudice and Discrimination:

Module 77: Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice:

Prejudice

Prejudice:

Prejudice Prejudice Stereotype Discrimination

Prejudice How Prejudiced Are People?:

Prejudice How Prejudiced Are People?

Prejudice Social Roots of Prejudice: Social Inequalities:

Prejudice Social Roots of Prejudice: Social Inequalities Just world phenomenon Blame the victim

Prejudice Social Roots of Prejudice: Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup:

Prejudice Social Roots of Prejudice: Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup Ingroup Outgroup Ingroup bias

Prejudice Emotional Roots of Prejudice:

Prejudice Emotional Roots of Prejudice Emotional roots of prejudice Scapegoat theory Economic variables Negative emotions

Prejudice Cognitive Roots of Prejudice:

Prejudice Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Categorization Outgroup homogeneity Other-race effect Vivid cases Believing the world is just Hindsight bias

Module 78: Aggression:

Module 78: Aggression

Introduction:

Introduction Aggression

The Biology of Aggression:

The Biology of Aggression

The Biology of Aggression:

The Biology of Aggression Genetic Influences Neural Influences Biochemical Influences

Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression:

Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression

Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive Events:

Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive Events Aversive Events Frustration-aggression principle Social and cultural influences Aggression-replacement program

Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive Events: :

Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive Events: Reinforcement and Modeling Aggression-replacement program Media Model for Violence Social scripts Do violent video games teach social scripts for violence?

Module 79: Attraction:

Module 79: Attraction

The Psychology of Attraction:

The Psychology of Attraction

The Psychology of Attraction Proximity:

The Psychology of Attraction Proximity Proximity Mere exposure effect

The Psychology of Attraction Physical Attractiveness:

The Psychology of Attraction Physical Attractiveness Physical attractiveness

The Psychology of Attraction Similarity:

The Psychology of Attraction Similarity Similarity Positive correlation between similarity and liking Reward theory of attraction

Romantic Love:

Romantic Love

Romantic Love:

Romantic Love Love Passionate love Companionate love Equity Self-disclosure

Module 80: Altruism, Conflict, and Peacemaking:

Module 80: Altruism, Conflict, and Peacemaking

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism Altruism Kitty Genovese Bystander Intervention Diffusion of responsibility Bystander effect

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism:

Altruism

Altruism The Norms for Helping:

Altruism The Norms for Helping Social exchange theory Reciprocity norm Social-responsibility norm

Conflict and Peacemaking:

Conflict and Peacemaking

Conflict and Peacemaking Elements of Conflict:

Conflict and Peacemaking Elements of Conflict Conflict Social trap Non-zero sum game

Conflict and Peacemaking Elements of Conflict: Enemy Perceptions:

Conflict and Peacemaking Elements of Conflict: Enemy Perceptions Mirror-image perceptions Self-fulfilling prophecy

Conflict and Peacemaking Promoting Peace:

Conflict and Peacemaking Promoting Peace Contact Cooperation Superordinate goals

Conflict and Peacemaking Promoting Peace:

Conflict and Peacemaking Promoting Peace Communication Conciliation GRIT

The End:

The End

Definition Slides:

Definition Slides

Social Psychology:

Social Psychology = the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Attribution Theory:

Attribution Theory = the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.

Fundamental Attribution Error:

Fundamental Attribution Error = the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

Attitude:

Attitude = feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

Peripheral Route Persuasion:

Peripheral Route Persuasion = occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.

Central Route Persuasion:

Central Route Persuasion = occurs when influenced people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.

Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon:

Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon = the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

Role:

Role = a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory:

Cognitive Dissonance Theory = the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

Conformity:

Conformity = adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

Normative Social Influence:

Normative Social Influence = influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

Informational Social Influence:

Informational Social Influence = influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.

Social Facilitation:

Social Facilitation = stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.

Social Loafing:

Social Loafing = the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

Deindividuation:

Deindividuation = the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Group Polarization:

Group Polarization = the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the groups.

Groupthink:

Groupthink = the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.

Culture:

Culture = the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Norm:

Norm = an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior.

Prejudice:

Prejudice = an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.

Stereotype:

Stereotype = a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.

Discrimination:

Discrimination = unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.

Just-World Phenomenon:

Just-World Phenomenon = the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

Ingroup:

Ingroup = “Us” – people with whom we share a common identity.

Outgroup:

Outgroup = “Them” – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.

Ingroup Bias:

Ingroup Bias = the tendency to favor our own group.

Scapegoat Theory:

Scapegoat Theory = the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.

Other-Race Effect:

Other-Race Effect = the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias .

Aggression:

Aggression = any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

Frustration-Aggression Principle:

Frustration-Aggression Principle = the principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression.

Social Script:

Social Script = culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.

Mere Exposure Effect:

Mere Exposure Effect = the phenomenon the repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.

Passionate Love:

Passionate Love = an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.

Companionate Love:

Companionate Love = the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

Equity:

Equity = a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.

Self-Disclosure:

Self-Disclosure = revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

Altruism:

Altruism = unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

Bystander Effect:

Bystander Effect = the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.

Social Exchange Theory:

Social Exchange Theory = the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

Reciprocity Norm:

Reciprocity Norm = an expectation that people will help, not hurt those who have helped them.

Social-Responsibility Norm:

Social-Responsibility Norm = an expectation that people will help those needing their help..

Conflict:

Conflict = a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

Social Trap:

Social Trap = a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

Mirror-Image Perceptions:

Mirror-Image Perceptions = mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy = a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.

Superordinate Goals:

Superordinate Goals = shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

GRIT:

GRIT = Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction – a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.

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