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Antibiotics Subtitle

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Content Layout Introduction Relation with biotechnology Overview Current biotechnological programs and projects of key biotechnological divisions of Nepal in terms of antibody production Government policy/ legislation regarding application of biotechnology PRIORITY AREAS OF COOPERATION FOR NEPAL in context of antibiotics Comparisons Conclusion Bibliography


Introduction Antibiotics  are the chemical substances which have the ability to kill disease causing  microorganisms .. It is an interesting fact that antibiotics are derived from the bacteria and mold. These microbes release such chemicals which can be used as weapons against other harmful microbes. Biotechnology has also led to the development of antibiotics. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the mold  Penicillium . Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genetic manipulation .

Relation with biotechnology:

Relation with biotechnology Antibiotics are classical example of the biotechnology because using the biotech tools it has been possible to culture the microbes on a very large scale, in turn resulting in a large scale production of antibiotics. Fermentation technology is one of the most important aspect of biotechnology. Moreover the scientists have been working on different microbial strains to improve the production of antibiotics and to bring down the cost production. They also aim at making the antibodies microbe specific and with less side effects to human. All this requires the use of different biotech tools and theories. Production of 'hybrid' antibiotics by genetic engineering is also possible


Overview Over the past few centuries, medicine has undergone waves of changes with the discovery of newer technologies such as microscopy, anaesthesia, vaccination and antibiotics. The application of molecular biology has already delivered new therapies .This knowledge will unlock new targets for diagnostics, treatment and prevention of disease. Advancement in human genomics/ proteomics researches have facilitated in understanding drug development for specific diseases. Advancement in biotechnology has enabled the production of monoclonal antibodies in E. coli which is much cheaper way of producing Hybridoma cells.

Current Biotechnological Programs And Projects Of Key Biotechnological Divisions Of Nepal In Terms Of Antibody Production::

Current Biotechnological Programs And Projects Of Key Biotechnological Divisions Of Nepal In Terms Of Antibody Production: RECAST - Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities: isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds (Appropriate technology package based on Jatropha curcas oil; potential antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anticancer, plant extracts) SPPL Dillibazar , Kathmandu - Sero -prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus among injecting drug users from Kathmandu. Everest Biotech Pvt. Ltd. Maharajgunj - Antibody production – in house Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology ( RIBB ) - Isolation and molecular identification of actinomycetes and other virulent strains from higher altitude region of Nepal. Characterization of compounds like antibiotics, toxins from these species.  Identification of pharmaceutically important compounds for drug development.

Government Policy/ Legislation Regarding Application Of Biotechnology:

Government Policy/ Legislation Regarding Application Of Biotechnology Recently, Nepal Government has ratified National Biotechnology Policy ( NBP , 2006). Prior to this, Ministry of Forestry and Soil Conservation has published Biosafety Guidelines (2062) with regards to safe handling and use of modern biotechnology products ( Biosafetry guidelines, 2005/ 2062). Recently, MoFSC has developed National Biosafety Framework ( NBF , 2007) comprising policy, legal, technical and administrative aspects of Biosafety to safeguard the biological diversity, human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of Genetically Modified Organism ( GMOs ) and their products as per CBD-CPB requirements. Besides these, a number of national policy and legal documents exist in various disciplines and sub-sectors within various institution’s mandate and objectives that are directly or indirectly related to biotechnology, biodiversity and biosafety.


PRIORITY AREAS OF COOPERATION FOR NEPAL In Context Of Antibiotics A number of biotechnology based human therapeutics (antibiotics, insulin, interferon, blood clotting factor VIII, neutraceuticals , probiotics and other herbal medicines) might be in massive use in Nepal and almost all of them are being imported from neighboring countries as well as from abroad. Nepal being very rich in floral, faunal and microbial biodiversity, huge potential for economic development exists when proper linkage could be made between biodiversity and biotechnology. Therefore, in Antibiotics Biotechnology Sector, Priority areas of cooperation for Nepal from helpful SAARC countries are: HR and infrastructure development in conventional and recombinant therapeutics and vaccines production; developing capabilities in Genomics/ Proteomics and Bioinformatics. Drug development from the rich biological resources .

Comparisons by Expert I:

Comparisons by Expert I What is the basic difference between the biological research during your time and in current time? Biological research is rapidly evolving area with new discoveries, sophisticated tools and advanced technologies. More we study,  more it becomes complicated and opens new areas for study. It was started from simple genetic engineering to protein engineering, gene to genomics, single protein to proteomics etc. Good understanding and easily accessible database made the study much easier these days than before, however, it becomes more competitive and challenging. -Dr Devi B Basnet ( senior researcher in Research and Development Centre, Medytox , a leading Global Biotech Company  )

Comparisons by Expert II:

Comparisons by Expert II What difference have you found in Nepal and abroad in the field of research? We have similar laboratories but due to lack of fund we are not being able to maintain our existing facilities properly. Therefore even with the capabilities, we do not have an environment where we could use our talents efficiently. We do experiments here but they barely focus on a new research. They are repetition of something already done in some part of the world. Even in areas where a good research has been done, the technology has not been transferred for practical applications. They merely become research topics for publications without practical use. Our research ends after publishing paper. And here without benefitting themselves some people won’t let go others ahead despite of their hard works . -Dr. Janardan Lamichhane , Vice President of AFOB representing Nepal (Asian Federation Of Biotechnology) 


Conclusion It would be best to identify the local resource and try to valorize them. There are various opportunities in valorizing medicinal plants (from low to high altitude), isolating and identifying different microbial strains from different environmental condition. These findings have potential industrial applications. For example production of different bioactive compounds eg . Antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, probiotics etc .


Bibliography http:// /wiki/Biotechnology http:// /Q/ How_is_antibiotics_an_example_of_biotechnology http:// / pubmed /3857464 http:// // interview_detail /interview-with- dr - devi -b- basnet -volume-13 http:// / interview_detail /interview-with- dr - janardan - lamichhane -volume-9 http:// /about-us http:// /thread- 49.html National State-of-the-Art Report on Biotechnology for Nepal -Jointly Prepared By Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Khumaltar , Lalitpur, Nepal And Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology ( MoEST ), Government of Nepal, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal ( December, 2008)

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