EVIDENCE documentation[1]

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EVIDENCE David Venditto, M.A.— Adjunct Instructor, cat lover, ordained minister of the Church of Spiritual Humanism

Common knowledge:

Common knowledge Common knowledge does not need to be cited, because it is generally accepted information that everyone knows. Example: George Bush was reelected in 2004. Example: Medicinal marijuana has raised some controversy over the past few years.


Statistics Statistics always have to be cited, and you should only use well-known sources. Statistics from a reputable source can be the most powerful form of evidence available. Statistics must be used sparingly, as they can easily confuse readers. Example: “Women earn on average 78 cents to a man's dollar, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. That is far better than the 63 cents white women earned in 1975, yet some Hispanic women today earn just 56 cents of a man's dollar” (bizwomen.com).

Secondary sources:

Secondary sources These are outside sources, all of which need to be cited. These include books, periodicals, and web pages like wikipedia.org. Using many reputable secondary sources in an argumentative paper leads to the creation of solid, convincing arguments. Example: Modernism does, however, attempt to piece together the fragments of a dilapidated Western civilization in a search for meaning and this search, “even if it does not succeed, becomes meaningful in itself” (Baym and Holland 1714-1715).

Opinion of authorities:

Opinion of authorities In some cases, you may want to interview an authority in a particular field. For instance, if you’re writing a paper on the effects of secondhand smoke, it might make sense to interview a lung specialist to determine exactly what the long-term effects might be. Example: Dr. Venditto expressed how even second hand smoke can lead to COPD, and other complications.


Examples One of the main types of support that students use in Comp 110 is personal examples. Knowing how to use these effectively, though, is quite difficult for some students. The examples must be concise and relevant. Example: A person does not need a college degree to be successful, seen clearly in a close acquaintance—Jerry Grungeface. Jerry started his own business right out of high school, and it remains profitable to this day.

Why cite your sources?:

Why cite your sources? Proper citation of your sources in MLA style can help prevent plagiarism; if a teacher catches a student plagiarizing, the student will fail the paper and possibly fail the course. Proper citation also lends credibility to students’ writing. If the reader sees that a student has thoroughly researched information from highly regarded sources, the arguments in the paper will seem valid and substantive.


Periodicals/Journals/Newspapers A magazine: Klein, Joe. “Dizzy Days.” The New Yorker 5 Oct. 1998: 40-45. A newspaper article: Tommasini, Anthony. “Master Teachers Whose Artistry Glows in Private.” New York Times 27 Oct. 1998: B2. An academic journal: Banfield, Ann. "The Moral Landscape of Mansfield Park." Nineteenth-Century Fiction . (June 1971): 26:1. 1-24

Interviews :

Interviews A TV interview: McGwire, Mark. Interview with Matt Lauer. The Today Show . NBC. WTHR, Indianapolis. 22 Oct. 1998. A personal interview: Mellencamp, John. Personal interview. 27 Oct. 1998.


Books Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park . New York: Penguin Books, 1996. Gorman, Elizabeth. Prairie Women. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. Venditto, David. Zombies, Booze, and Dancing: An Autobiography . Bristol: BCCC Press, 1996.



Works in an anthology:

Works in an anthology From The Longman Reader: Orwell, George. “Shooting an Elephant.” The Longman Reader, 7 th Edition . Ed. Judith Nadell. New York: Pearson-Longman, 2005. Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case." Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense . Ed. Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson. New York: Heinle and Heinle, 2002.

Online sources:

Online sources Poland, Dave. “The Hot Button.” Roughcut . 26 Oct. 1998. Turner Network Television. 28 Oct. 1998 <www.roughcut.com>. “Cosmetic Testing on Animals.” Dermaxime . 2005. 30 April 2005 <www.dermaxime.com>. Schrock, Kathleen. "Digital Gadgets." Kathy Schrock’s Guide for Educators . 20 February 2002. Discovery Channel. 11 March 2003. < http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/gadgets.html >.

Parenthetical notation:

Parenthetical notation The author’s last name and the page number(s) of the quote should appear at the end of the sentence in parentheses. Note that the period goes after the end parentheses. Example: Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263). His language, while crude, "uses a staggeringly rich vocabulary, ranging from the recondite to the demotic, from the most picturesque of evocations to the crudest slang" (Frontier 45).

Sample works cited page:

Sample works cited page Works Cited Baym, Nina and Laurence B. Holland. "American Literature Between the Wars." The Norton Anthology of American Literature: Shorter 6th Edition . Ed. Nina Baym. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1995. Booker, M. Keith. "Postmodernism in Medieval England: Chaucer, Pynchon, Joyce and the Poetics of Fission." Exemplaria 2 (1990): 563-94 Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment . New York: Bantam Books, 1987. Frontier, Alain. "Rabelais the ribald scholar." UNESCO Courier . (Nov 1994): 47:11. 44-46 Rabelais. "Gargantua." Litterature Francaise . Ed. R.-J. Berg. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1994.

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