Chemical reactions

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KS3 Chemistry:

KS3 Chemistry 7F Simple Chemical Reactions

Contents:

7F Simple Chemical Reactions Word equations Reactions with oxygen Chemical reactions everywhere Summary activities Reactions with acid Contents

Physical and chemical changes:

Physical and chemical changes How many physical and chemical changes can you spot?

What is a chemical reaction?:

What is a chemical reaction? cooking rusting sticking burning making metals living! Can you think of any other chemical reactions? Chemical reactions do not only happen in the laboratory. Chemical reactions happen anywhere that new substances are made:

Useful chemical reactions:

Useful chemical reactions

Non-useful chemical reactions:

Non-useful chemical reactions

Reactants and products:

Reactants and products The starting substances used in a reaction are reactants . The new substances formed in a reaction are products . reactants products In a chemical reaction, one or more new substances are formed. The arrow means “ change into ”. In a chemical reaction, all the reactants change into the products. It is difficult to reverse a chemical reaction and change the products back into the reactants.

More about chemical changes:

More about chemical changes Chemical changes are usually difficult to reverse. Magnesium burns in oxygen to form magnesium oxide. It is not possible to “un-burn” the magnesium once it has been burnt. Many reactions need energy to get them started. Many reactions (like the burning of magnesium) give out heat energy once the reaction has started. Heat energy being given out is one sign of a chemical reaction. What other signs of a chemical reaction are there? magnesium oxide oxygen magnesium

Contents:

7F Simple Chemical Reactions Word equations Reactions with oxygen Chemical reactions everywhere Summary activities Reactions with acid Contents

Reaction of acid with metals:

Reaction of acid with metals

Test for hydrogen:

magnesium + acid hydrogen burning splint Many metals react with acids. When this happens the metal fizzes as bubbles are produced. What do the bubbles mean? A gas is produced. How can you test to find out if the gas produced is hydrogen? Place a burning splint next to the mouth of test tube. A ‘squeaky pop’ as the gas ignites shows that hydrogen is the gas produced in this reaction. Test for hydrogen

Reaction of acid with a metal carbonate:

Reaction of acid with a metal carbonate

Test for carbon dioxide:

When a metal carbonate reacts with acid it fizzes and then seems to disappear. The carbonate and the acid have reacted and changed into a salt , water and carbon dioxide . When carbon dioxide gas is bubbled through limewater, it turns the limewater cloudy or milky white . Test for carbon dioxide a salt metal carbonate acid water carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide can be tested for using the limewater test.

Contents:

7F Simple Chemical Reactions Word equations Reactions with oxygen Contents Chemical reactions everywhere Summary activities Reactions with acid Contents

Word equations:

3. The names of the products. A word equation is used as a quick, shorthand way of writing a chemical reaction. There are always three parts to a word equation: 1. The names of the reactants. 2. An arrow. Word equations reactants products What is the word equation for hydrogen reacting with oxygen to form water? water oxygen hydrogen

Reactant or product? :

Substance Reactant or Product? magnesium oxide magnesium copper oxide copper product reactant reactant product Reactant or product? magnesium oxide magnesium copper oxide copper In this chemical reaction , which substances are the reactants and which substances are products?

Write the word equations:

What are the word equations for the following reactions? 2. Calcium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and water. 3. Sodium reacts with hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride and hydrogen. Write the word equations magnesium oxide oxygen calcium chloride calcium hydroxide hydrochloric acid water 1. Magnesium burns brightly in oxygen to form magnesium oxide. magnesium sodium chloride sodium hydrochloric acid hydrogen

Contents:

7F Simple Chemical Reactions Word equations Reactions with oxygen Contents Chemical reactions everywhere Summary activities Reactions with acid Contents

What is combustion?:

What is combustion? Combustion is the scientific word for burning and is a type of chemical reaction. Combustion is the reaction when a substance burns and reacts with oxygen to produce heat and light energy.

Using combustion:

Burning has been an important source of energy since primitive man and is still a hugely important process today. Using combustion How different would life be without combustion? Burning fuel, like coal, petrol and natural gas, provides > 90% of the energy needed for transport, factories and in the home.

Fire triangle:

Fire triangle

Equations for combustion:

3. Methane burns and forms carbon dioxide and water: Equations for combustion 1. Coal (made from carbon) burns and forms carbon dioxide: When substance burns and react with oxygen the new substances formed are called “ oxides ”. What are the word equations for these combustion reactions? carbon dioxide oxygen carbon 2. Hydrogen burns and forms dihydrogen oxide (i.e water!): water oxygen hydrogen carbon dioxide oxygen methane water

Combustion of methane:

Combustion of methane The natural gas, methane , is often burnt for cooking. Methane is made up of carbon and hydrogen. What gas does methane react with when it burns? oxygen What substance will the carbon in methane change into when it burns in oxygen? carbon dioxide What substance will the hydrogen in methane change into when it burns in oxygen? water What is the word equation for the combustion of methane? carbon dioxide oxygen methane water

Candle burning in bell jar:

Candle burning in bell jar

Contents:

7F Simple Chemical Reactions Acid reactions Reactions with oxygen Contents Chemical reactions everywhere Summary activities Reactions with acid Contents

Glossary:

Glossary carbon dioxide – A gas that turns limewater cloudy. chemical reaction – A change in which new substances are made and cannot easily be reversed. combustion – The scientific word for burning which is the reaction of a substance with oxygen. fuel – A material that burns and generates useable energy. hydrogen – A gas that makes a lighted splint produce a ’squeaky pop’. products – T he new substances produced in a chemical reaction and shown on the left of a word equation. reactants – The starting substances used in a chemical reaction and shown on the right of a word equation. word equation – A summary of a chemical reaction.

Anagrams:

Anagrams

Quiz: useful reactions or not?:

Quiz: useful reactions or not?

Chemical reactions summary:

Chemical reactions summary

Multiple-choice quiz:

Multiple-choice quiz

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