Antifungal Agents

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Slide 1:

Systemic & Topical Some are fungistatic, while others are fungicidal

OVERVIEW:

OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION DEFINITION CLASSIFICATION CHEMISTRY MECHANISM OF ACTION

FUNGAL DISEASES:

FUNGAL DISEASES Aspergilloma Aspergillosis Athlete's foot Candidiasis Mycosis Tinea

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION An antifungal medication is a medication used to treat fungal infections such as athlete's foot , ringworm , candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis , and others. Such drugs are usually obtained by a doctor's prescription or purchased over-the-counter .

ClASSIFICATION :

ClASSIFICATION Polyene antifungal Imidazole, triazole, and thiazole antifungals Allylamines Echinocandin Others Alternatives

Polyene antifungals :

Polyene antifungals A polyene is a molecule with multiple conjugated double bonds . A polyene antifungal is a macrocyclic polyene with a heavily hydroxylated region on the ring opposite the conjugated system. This makes polyene antifungals amphiphilic . The polyene antimycotics bind with sterols in the fungal cell membrane , principally ergosterol .

Slide 8:

Natamycin - 33 Carbons, binds well to ergosterol Rimocidin Filipin - 35 Carbons, binds to cholesterol (toxic) Nystatin Amphotericin B Candicin Hamycin

AMPHOTERICIN:

AMPHOTERICIN

Antifungal Agents:

Antifungal Agents Imidazole and triazole The imidazole and triazole groups of antifungal drugs inhibit the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase. This enzyme converts lanosterol to ergosterol, and is required in fungal cell membrane synthesis. These drugs also block steroid synthesis in humans.

Slide 11:

Imidazoles: Miconazole Bifonazole Ketoconazole Butoconazole Clotrimazole Econazole Mebendazole Fenticonazole Isoconazole Oxiconazole Sertaconazole Sulconazole Thiabendazole Tiaconazole

Antifungal Agents:

Antifungal Agents The triazoles are newer, and are less toxic and more effective: Fluconazole Itraconazole Ravuconazole Posaconazole Voriconazole

Alternatives OBTAINED FROM NATURAL PRODUCTS :

Alternatives OBTAINED FROM NATURAL PRODUCTS Research conducted in 1996 indicated that the following substances or essential oils had anti-fungal properties

Slide 14:

Allicin - Tea tree oil - Citronella oil - Cymbopogon (Lemon grass) Iodine - Lugol's iodine olive leaf orange oil

Slide 15:

palmarosa oil patchouli lemon myrtle Neem Seed Oil Coconut Oil - medium chain triglycerides in the oil have antifungal activities Zinc - in dietary supplements or natural food sources, including pumpkin seeds and chick peas Selenium - in dietary supplements or natural food sources, particularly Brazil nuts Horopito ( Pseudowintera colorata ) leaf - contains the anti-fungal compound polygodial [5

ALLICIN:

ALLICIN an organosulfur compound obtained from garlic a species in the family Alliaceae .

GARLIC:

GARLIC

Tea tree oil :

Tea tree oil melaleuca oil a pale yellow colour to nearly clear essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor taken from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia

TEA TREE OIL:

TEA TREE OIL

Citronella oil :

Citronella oil one of the essential oils Obtained from the leaves and stems of different species of Cymbopogon .

CITRONELLA OIL:

CITRONELLA OIL

OLIVE OIL:

OLIVE OIL the leaf of the olive tree ( Olea europaea )

ORANGE OIL:

ORANGE OIL an essential oil produced by glands inside the rind of an orange fruit

MECHANISM OF ACTION:

MECHANISM OF ACTION Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells kill the fungal organism without dangerous effects on the host. Unlike bacteria , both fungi and humans are eukaryotes . Thus fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level.

Slide 25:

This makes it more difficult to find or design drugs that target fungi without affecting human cells. As a consequence, many antifungal drugs cause side-effects . Some of these side-effects can be life-threatening if the drugs are not used properly.

Sources:

Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifungal http://www.lamisil.com/ http://www.tinactin.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griseofulvin http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/issues/v30n4/990666/990666.text.html?erFrom=-4860378516935905751Guest http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au/downloads/antifungals.pdf#search=%22antifungal%20drugs%22 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nystatin http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blnystatin.htm