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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Systemic & Topical Some are fungistatic, while others are fungicidalOVERVIEW: OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION DEFINITION CLASSIFICATION CHEMISTRY MECHANISM OF ACTIONFUNGAL DISEASES: FUNGAL DISEASES Aspergilloma Aspergillosis Athlete's foot Candidiasis Mycosis TineaDEFINITION: DEFINITION An antifungal medication is a medication used to treat fungal infections such as athlete's foot , ringworm , candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis , and others. Such drugs are usually obtained by a doctor's prescription or purchased over-the-counter .ClASSIFICATION : ClASSIFICATION Polyene antifungal Imidazole, triazole, and thiazole antifungals Allylamines Echinocandin Others AlternativesPolyene antifungals : Polyene antifungals A polyene is a molecule with multiple conjugated double bonds . A polyene antifungal is a macrocyclic polyene with a heavily hydroxylated region on the ring opposite the conjugated system. This makes polyene antifungals amphiphilic . The polyene antimycotics bind with sterols in the fungal cell membrane , principally ergosterol .Slide 8: Natamycin - 33 Carbons, binds well to ergosterol Rimocidin Filipin - 35 Carbons, binds to cholesterol (toxic) Nystatin Amphotericin B Candicin HamycinAMPHOTERICIN: AMPHOTERICINAntifungal Agents: Antifungal Agents Imidazole and triazole The imidazole and triazole groups of antifungal drugs inhibit the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase. This enzyme converts lanosterol to ergosterol, and is required in fungal cell membrane synthesis. These drugs also block steroid synthesis in humans.Slide 11: Imidazoles: Miconazole Bifonazole Ketoconazole Butoconazole Clotrimazole Econazole Mebendazole Fenticonazole Isoconazole Oxiconazole Sertaconazole Sulconazole Thiabendazole TiaconazoleAntifungal Agents: Antifungal Agents The triazoles are newer, and are less toxic and more effective: Fluconazole Itraconazole Ravuconazole Posaconazole VoriconazoleAlternatives OBTAINED FROM NATURAL PRODUCTS : Alternatives OBTAINED FROM NATURAL PRODUCTS Research conducted in 1996 indicated that the following substances or essential oils had anti-fungal propertiesSlide 14: Allicin - Tea tree oil - Citronella oil - Cymbopogon (Lemon grass) Iodine - Lugol's iodine olive leaf orange oilSlide 15: palmarosa oil patchouli lemon myrtle Neem Seed Oil Coconut Oil - medium chain triglycerides in the oil have antifungal activities Zinc - in dietary supplements or natural food sources, including pumpkin seeds and chick peas Selenium - in dietary supplements or natural food sources, particularly Brazil nuts Horopito ( Pseudowintera colorata ) leaf - contains the anti-fungal compound polygodial [5ALLICIN: ALLICIN an organosulfur compound obtained from garlic a species in the family Alliaceae .GARLIC: GARLICTea tree oil : Tea tree oil melaleuca oil a pale yellow colour to nearly clear essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor taken from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifoliaTEA TREE OIL: TEA TREE OILCitronella oil : Citronella oil one of the essential oils Obtained from the leaves and stems of different species of Cymbopogon .CITRONELLA OIL: CITRONELLA OILOLIVE OIL: OLIVE OIL the leaf of the olive tree ( Olea europaea )ORANGE OIL: ORANGE OIL an essential oil produced by glands inside the rind of an orange fruitMECHANISM OF ACTION: MECHANISM OF ACTION Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells kill the fungal organism without dangerous effects on the host. Unlike bacteria , both fungi and humans are eukaryotes . Thus fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level.Slide 25: This makes it more difficult to find or design drugs that target fungi without affecting human cells. As a consequence, many antifungal drugs cause side-effects . Some of these side-effects can be life-threatening if the drugs are not used properly.Sources: Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifungal http://www.lamisil.com/ http://www.tinactin.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griseofulvin http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/issues/v30n4/990666/990666.text.html?erFrom=-4860378516935905751Guest http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au/downloads/antifungals.pdf#search=%22antifungal%20drugs%22 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nystatin http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blnystatin.htm You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.