DETECTING METHODS OF ETT positions -modified on 12-04.12 Copy

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''Detecting methods of ETT positions'' is the post graduate level lecture in emergency medicine was initially delivered in the first Eurasian congress on Emergency Medicine at Antalya Turkey in 2008.This presentation was viewed more than 900 people through Author stream.com. The new edition is upgraded in AVI format with presenter's own voice and relevant videos

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DETECTING METHODS OF ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE POSITION:

DETECTING METHODS OF ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE POSITION Venugopalan P.P. MB;BS, DA, DNB, MNAMS. Chief of Emergency Medicine Deputy Director, MIMS Academy Site Director, Master’s Program in EM,GWU-USA Malabar Institute of Medical Sciences Ltd., Kozhikode , India 1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Post Graduate lecture Series

Objectives:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Objectives Review of conventional methods Good and Gold Standards for ETT positioning International recommendations An algorithm to confirm tube position

Background:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Endotracheal intubation is a potential minefield for disaster. Errors in its performance can be associated with high morbidity and mortality for the patient and legal liability for the practitioner. Background

Verification methods:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Verification methods Observational verification Measured verification Anatomical verification

Observational verification :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Observational verification Direct visualization Observation of chest movement Five point auscultation Presence of exhaled tidal volume

Observational verification:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Observational verification Reservoir bag compliance Tube condensation with exhalation Absence of gastric contents within the ETT

Measured verifications :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Measured verifications End-tidal Carbon dioxide (ETCO 2 ) Pulse Oximeter

Anatomical verification :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Anatomical verification Esophageal Detector Device (EDD) Chest Radiograph Lighted Stylet

Anatomical verification:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Anatomical verification Sonography (USG) Fiberoptic Bronchoscope / Laryngoscope Video Assisted Laryngoscope

Direct visualization :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Direct visualization Non visualization of cords Dislodged tube (before / after securing) Inadvertent esophageal tube position after direct vision intubation * * White SJ, Slovis CM. Inadvertent esophageal intubation in the field: Reliance on a fool’s “gold standard”. Acad Emerg Med 1997; 4: 89-91

Intubation under vision:

Intubation under vision 1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey

Chest Movement:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Chest Movement Obesity - decreased or absent chest excursion Lung diseases - decreased or absent chest excursion Esophageal intubation does produce some degree of chest movement * * Cundy J. Accidental Intubation of Esophagus (letter) Anesth Intensive Care 1981; 9:76 Ogden PN. Endotracheal Tube misplacement (letter) Anesth Intensive Care 1983; 11: 273-4

Auscultation – Axilla :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Auscultation – Axilla Breath sounds may be heard in both axillae but may result in misdiagnosis in up to 15 % of all esophageal intubations* * Linko K. Capnography for detection of accidental esophageal intubation. Acta Anesthsiol Scand 1983; 27: 199-202

Auscultation - Epigastrium:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Auscultation - Epigastrium Not 100% reliable Gastric distention is gradual due to previous bag mask ventilation

End tidal CO2 detection:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey End tidal CO 2 detection

ETCO2:

ETCO2 1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey

End tidal CO2 detection:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey End tidal CO 2 detection CO 2 in exhaled air confirms tracheal tube position in patients with spontaneous circulation * * Takeda T. The assessment of three different methods to verify tracheal tube placement in the emergency setting. Resuscitation 56; 153, 2003.

End tidal CO2 detection:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey End tidal CO 2 detection Cardiac arrest CO 2 level > 2 % - confirms tracheal tube position Absence of CO 2 will not rule out esophageal intubation. * Ron M W. Airway, Rosen’s Emergency Medicine Concepts and Clinical Practice, Vol 1, Sixth Edition 2006, MOSBY ELSEVIER

ETCO2 useful as an adjunct to confirm ET tube placement:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey ETCO 2 useful as an adjunct to confirm ET tube placement Studies LOE Li.J et al, J. Emerg Med. 2001 1 Germec S et al , Intensive Care Med 2002 3 Anton WR et al , Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Varon AJ et al, J.Clin Monit, 1991 5

End tidal CO2 detection:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey End tidal CO 2 detection Positive predictive value (Endotracheal placement if CO 2 is detected) 100 % Negative predictive value (Esophageal placement if CO 2 is not detected) 20-100%

End tidal CO2 detection:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey End tidal CO 2 detection Threshold to detect - 15 mmHg for the colorimetric capnometer Waveform may be detected at much lower levels with capnography Nellcor.Easy Cap ET CO2 detector product information Hayward, CA: Nellcor, Inc 1992

End tidal CO2 detection:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey End tidal CO 2 detection Most reliable method Independent of user’s experience Sylvia K. Assessment of for deferent methods to verify tracheal tube placement in critical care setting Anesth. Analg 1999; 88: 766-70

False negative reading (Failure to detect CO2 when tube is in the trachea):

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey False negative reading (Failure to detect CO 2 when tube is in the trachea) Low Blood flow and CO 2 delivery to lung (CPR) Pulmonary embolism – decreased pulmonary blood flow Contaminated detector – gastric content and acidic drugs like epinephrine when administered through trachea.

False negative reading (Failure to detect CO2 when tube is in the trachea):

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey False negative reading (Failure to detect CO 2 when tube is in the trachea) IV Epinephrine will reduce elimination and detection of CO 2 * Severe airway obstruction Status Asthmatics Pulmonary Edema * Cantineau JP; Effect of epinephrine on end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure during pre hospital cardio pulmonary resuscitation. AmJ Emerg Med 1998; 5: 637-646

Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD):

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD)

Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD):

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD) The EDD consists of a bulb that is compressed and attached to ET tube or a syringe that is attached to ETT.

EDD –Principle :

EDD –Principle Collapsible Esophagus & Non collapsible Trachea 1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Trachea Oesophagus

Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD):

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD) The suction created by the EDD will collapse lumen of the esophagus and the bulb will not re expand

EDD:

EDD 1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey

EDD sensitivity for esophageal tube position:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey EDD sensitivity for esophageal tube position Studies LOE Takeda T et al, Resuscitation 2003 Pelucio M et al, Emerg Med 1997 Tanigwa K et al, Anesthesiology 2000 3 Bozeman WP et al, Ann Emerg Med. 1996 5 Sherieff GQ . et al, Acad Emerg. Med 2003 Wee MY et al, Anesthesia. 1991 Williams KN et al, Anaesthesia 1989 Zalesi L et al, Anesthesiology 1993 7

EDD –Less specific for tracheal tube position:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey EDD –Less specific for tracheal tube position Studies LOE Haynes SR et al, Anesthesia 1990 2 Takeda T et al, Resuscitation 2003 Tanigwa K et al, Anesthesiology 2000 3

Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD):

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Esophageal Detector Devices (EDD) Highly sensitive for detection of esophageal intubation * Poor specificity for tracheal tube placement EDD is not accurate for continuous monitoring * Takeda T. The assessment of three methods to verify tracheal tube placement in emergency setting. Resuscitation 2003; 56:153-157 Pelucio M. Out-of-hospital experience with the syringe esophageal detector device Acad Emerg Med 1997; 4: 563-68 Tanigwa K. Accuracy and reliability of the self-inflating bulb to verify tracheal intubation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patient Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 1432-1446

EDD will be misleading:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey EDD will be misleading Morbid obesity Late pregnancy Status Asthmaticus Copious ET Secretions Tracheal collapse

Pulse Oximetry:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Pulse Oximetry Useful ?

Pulse Oximetry :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Pulse Oximetry Useful But, Delayed !! * Benumof J. Critical Hemoglobin desaturation will occurs before return to un paralyzed state following 1mg/kg intravenous succinyl choline. Anesthesiology 87, 979, 1997

Chest Radiography:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Chest Radiography Primary purpose is to ensure its position below the cords and above the carina * * Ron M W. Airway, Rosen’s Emergency Medicine Concepts and Clinical Practice, Vol 1, Sixth Edition 2006, MOSBY ELSEVIER

Other methods:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Other methods Sonography Lighted Stylet

Other methods :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Other methods Fiberoptic scope Video Assisted Laryngoscope

International Recommendations:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey International Recommendations

Emergency Medicine Journal March 2001:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Emergency Medicine Journal March 2001 “Independent confirmation of correct tube placement by the use of devices that detect end-tidal CO 2 is mandatory for every endotracheal intubation performed in the emergency department and as part of the assessment of all patients who arrive at the emergency department already intubated” * Position statement number 1.Confirmation of endotracheal tube placement with end tidal CO 2 detection. Emerg Med J 2001:18 :329, review March, 2003

American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) October 2001 :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) October 2001 End-tidal CO 2 detection, either qualitative, quantitative, or continuous, is the most accurate and easily available method to monitor correct endotracheal tube position in patients who have adequate tissue perfusion * * Verification of endotracheal tube placement; policy statement. American College of Emergency Physicians. www.acep.org /1,4923,0.html

National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMPS) – Position statement 1999 :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMPS) – Position statement 1999 In the patient with a perfusing rhythm, end-tidal CO 2 detection is the best method for verification * O’Connor RE. Verification of endotracheal tube placement following intubation. National Association of EMS Physicians Standards and Clinical Practice committee, Pre hosp Emerg Care 1999; 3:248-50

American Heart Association (AHA) Protocol for Advanced Cardiac Life Support [ACLS] 2002 and 2005 :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey American Heart Association (AHA) Protocol for Advanced Cardiac Life Support [ACLS] 2002 and 2005 Expired CO 2 detectors are very reliable in patients with perfusing rhythm and are recommended to confirm tube position in these patients (Class IIa) * * American Heart Association Resuscitation guidelines 2005, Circulation 2005; 112: IV-51-IV 57)

Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA) * :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA) * Capnography is essential to the safe conduct of anesthesia Continual monitoring for the presence of expired carbon dioxide shall be performed unless invalidated by the nature of the patient, procedure or equipment * Recommendation for standard of monitoring during Anesthesia and recovery. 3rd Edition, December 2000. The Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. www.aagbi.org/guidelines.html The American Society of Anesthesiologists. Standard for Basic Anesthetic Monitoring. Approved by House of Delegates, October 1986, amended 1998. http://www.asahq.org/publicationsAndServices/standards/02.pdf#2

NRP (Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol) Guidelines 2006. Consensuses on sciences;:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey NRP (Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol) Guidelines 2006. Consensuses on sciences; Exhaled CO 2 detection is reliable indicator of ETT placement in infants and it identifies esophageal intubation faster than clinical assessment. NRP recommends using exhaled CO 2 detection to confirm tracheal tube placement * (Aziz J perinatol 1999, Bhende, Pediatrics 1995, Repetto, J Perinatol 2001, Roberts, Pediatric Pulmonl 1995)

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey “Despite the recommendations issued by various National organizations that endorse continues monitoring of ET CO 2 for confirming ET tube placement, it is neither widely available nor consistently applied” * Delorio NM, Continuous and-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement is neither widely available nor consistently applied by emergency physicians, Emerg Med J 2005; 22:490-493 However what is the ground reality ?

Suggesting:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Suggesting A Practical Approach !!

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Attach ETCO2 Detector, Start Ventilation

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Observe ETCO2 color change / Wave form / Digital display

Algorithm to confirm Tube Position:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Algorithm to confirm Tube Position

Conclusion :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Conclusion Confirmation of proper tracheal tube placement is as important as successful intubation. Exhaled CO 2 detection is reliable and should be considered the standard for confirmation of tracheal placement of an ETT and for early detection of accidental esophageal intubation.

Conclusion:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey Conclusion The Emergency Physician should make sure the availability of ET CO 2 detection devices in ER and with EMS team when they are in the field. They should also ensure usage of confirmation devices by the concerned persons

International Academic Training Center –GWU, USA Regional Training Center ,American Heart Association :

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey International Academic Training Center –GWU, USA Regional Training Center ,American Heart Association

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 st Eurasian International Congress on Emergency Medicine 5th – 9th Nov 2008 at Antalya Turkey www.drvenu.net Thank You www.angelsindia.org www.emergencymedicinemims.com

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