General Psyc - Lecture 2as

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General Psychology : 

General Psychology

What is Psychology? : 

What is Psychology? …the science of behavior and mental processes.

What is Psychology? : 

What is Psychology?

What is Psychology? : 

What is Psychology?

What is Behavior? : 

What is Behavior? …actions we can observe and record

What is Behavior? : 

What is Behavior?

What are Mental Processes ? : 

What are Mental Processes ? …the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior.

What are Mental Processes ? : 

What are Mental Processes ?

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Trephination – the surgical opening of the skull. Evidence of this procedure being performed over 7000 years ago. Psychology's Roots

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Psychology's Roots

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Diagram of an late 17th century trephination procedure. Used to treat a variety of symptoms, including migraines and mental disorders. Volume 6 of 'Anatomie de L'Homme' by Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883). Psychology's Roots

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Psychology's Roots Edwin Smith Surgical papyrus – this papyrus, written in the 17th century BC, provides the earliest written description of the brain on record. This is actually a copy of an older treatise on trauma surgery written around 2500 BC. Egyptian word for brain This document contains 48 case histories beginning with discussion of injuries of the head and proceeding downward to the thorax and spine.

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Psychology's Roots Egyptian word for brain The Edwin Smith Papyrus described how changes in body function can be traced to injuries of the brain or cervical spine, including how an injury on one part of the brain could be associated with paralysis on the opposite side of the body. The document also includes the first descriptions of such anatomical features as the menninges, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the external surface of the brain, as well as such medical treatments as surgical stitches and dressings.

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Psychology's Roots Case 2 - a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone. Examination: If you examinest a man having a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, you should lay your hand upon it and you should palpate his wound. If you findest his skull uninjured, not having a perforation in it... Diagnosis: you should say regarding him: "One having a gaping wound in his head. An ailment which I will treat." Treatment: you should bind fresh meat upon it the first day; you should apply for him two strips of linen, and treat afterward with grease, honey, and lint every day until he recovers.

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Psychology's Roots Aristotle, 384-322 BC Greek philosopher, student of Plato and a teacher of Alexander the Great. Produced theories on learning, memory, emotion, Perception and personality. Philosophy – study of existence, knowledge, values, the mind, etc, through the use of “rational” arguments. Plato, 427-347 BC Suggested that the brain is the seat of mental processes

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Psychology's Roots Phrenology – developed in 1796 by German physician Franz Joseph Gall. It was believed that the cranial bone conformed in order to accommodate the different sizes of these particular areas of the brain in different individuals, so that a person's capacity for a given personality trait could be determined simply by measuring the area of the skull that overlies the corresponding area of the brain. (Wikipedia)

Psychological Science is Born : 

Psychological Science is Born Received degree in Medicine from the University of Heidelberg in 1856, where he taught the first course in scientific psychology, stressing the use of “experimental methods” and emphasizing the relationship between the brain and the mind. Wundt wrote one the most important works in the history of psychology, Principals of Physiological Psychology, in 1874. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1831 - 31 August 1920) Considered the founder of experimental psychology.

Psychological Science is Born : 

Wilhelm Wundt established the first formal psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany in 1879. He established the first psychological journal, Philosophical Studies, in 1881. One of the most productive researchers of all time, publishing over 490 Works amounting to about 53,000 pages. Psychological Science is Born

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Wundt was interested in studying peoples mental experiences, that is, what one is perceiving, thinking, feeling or sensing at any particular moment. Structuralism – an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the mind He used the method of introspection, careful self examination and reporting of ones mental experiences. For example, he would expose individuals to a visual or auditory stimulus, and ask them to report their conscious reactions (what it sounded like, how long it lasted, how it felt, etc.). The hope was to develop a model of conscious experience by breaking it down into it’s component parts. . Psychological Science is Born

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Psychological Science is Born William James, 1842-1910 Harvard educated, became the most important advocate of the psychological school of functionalism. Functionalism – the school of psychology that focused On how our behavioral and mental processes function. How they enable us to adapt and survive. Wrote the textbook, Principals of Psychology (1890). A valuable work in the field of psychology, still widely read even today. The art of being wise is the art of knowing what to overlook.--William James

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Psychological Science is Born James also mentored arguably the first female Ph.D. in Psychology, Mary Calkins. Though finishing the prescribed courses, she was denied a Ph.D. by Harvard. Even today, there are still individuals lobbying Harvard to Posthumously award her the Ph.D. Calkins went on to become the American Psychological Associations (APA) first female President in 1905. Invented the technique of “paired associations” for memory research. In a paired-associates experiment, you might see a list like this: 3-VNR      8-CSL       1-RKJ      9-KPD After you inspected the list, the experimenter would present a stimulus item (like 8) and you would try to supply the response item (CSL). Then the experimenter might present the stimulus 3 and you would answer VNR. You must learn the association between each stimulus and its corresponding response. The pairs could occur in any order.

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According to Behaviorism, only directly observable events, stimuli and responses, can be studied. References to unseen mental processes which cannot be properly defined should be rejected. John Watson (1878-1958) – earned his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Chicago in 1903. Took position at John Hopkins University and began studying biology, physiology, animal behavior and children. Was influenced by the works of Ivan Pavlov in Russia and believed that nerve pathways were conditioned through experience. In 1913, at Columbia University, he delivered a lecture entitled "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It." This lecture would become known as the "behaviorist manifesto" and Watson would become known as the "father of behaviorism." Psychological Science Develops

Psychological Science Develops : 

Psychological Science Develops The science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and biology. For example; Wilhelm Wundt was both a philosopher and a physiologist. William James was also a philosopher. Mary Calkins was also a philosopher. John Watson – studied both biology and physiology

Psychological Science Develops : 

Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s many brilliant scientists contributed to psychological theory. Ivan Pavlov – learning Sigmund Freud – theory of personality Jean Piaget – child development Psychological Science Develops

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Methodology in Psychology Critical Thinking – thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, And assesses conclusions. What is the subject of the report? Who is the author? Do they have an agenda? What evidence is used to support the conclusion? What are the alternative explanations? Answering some of these questions regarding any particular issue may involve Some additional research on your part.

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Methodology in Psychology

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Methodology in Psychology

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Methodology in Psychology

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Methodology in Psychology How to Lie with Statistics by Stanley Erickson Suppose that a zealous insurance CEO asks his statistician if drivers with two or more tickets in a three-year period were more likely to have an accident. He would soon report back that drivers with two or more tickets have almost twice the chance of having an accident. Wow! Twice the accident rate! What fools! The CEO might think that by hitting these guys with higher premiums, he might make them think about their careless driving habits. The difference in mileage exposure alone is enough to produce a strong correlation between tickets and accidents.

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Methodology in Psychology The Scientific Method – a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing answers. Scientific method - (literally the method of Science) refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. (Wikipedia)

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Methodology in Psychology Theory – an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Example – the cause of depression is low self-esteem. Hypotheses – a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. They enable researchers to test, reject or revise a theory. The statement specifies what results would confirm a theory and which results would disconfirm it. Example – have individuals respond to statements, then compare these findings to the results from a depression scale. Individuals who report poorer self-images should also score higher on a depression scale.

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Methodology in Psychology Operational Definition – a statement of procedures (operations) used to define Research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. Example – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children The idea behind the precisely worded definitions is to allow others to replicate your findings. Replication – repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extend to other participants and circumstances.

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Methodology in Psychology The Case Study – observational technique in which one person is studied in depth with the hope of revealing universal principals. Example – much of our knowledge of the brain came from case studies of Individuals who suffered a particular impairment after damage to a certain area Of the brain. Example - Broca’s Area – Paul Broca noticed loss of language function after damage to the inferior frontal gyrus of the brain (~1861). Individual cases may not generalize to the population.

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Methodology in Psychology The Survey – technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of a group. Example from the Wall Street Journal

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Methodology in Psychology Population – all cases in a group being studied, from which samples can be drawn. Example – student population at TCU. Random Sample – a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Large representative samples are better than small ones. Always consider the sampling techniques before accepting survey findings.

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Methodology in Psychology What are some possible criticisms of this graph?

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Methodology in Psychology Naturalistic Observation – observing and recording behavior in a naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. Jane Goodall – British Primatologist and anthropologist who has spent 45 years studying the social and family interactions of chimpanzee’s in Tanzania.

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Methodology in Psychology Correlation – a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other. The result is a statistical measure called the correlation coefficient, which is the index of the relationship between the two variables represented on a scale from -1 to +1. Positive correlation – two variables rise and fall together. Example – height and weight Negative correlation – two variables relate inversely to each other. Example – tooth brushing And tooth decay.

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Methodology in Psychology No Correlation – no discernable relation between the two variables. - saying a correlation is “positive” or “negative” says nothing about the strength or weakness of the relationship between the two variables. The terms refer only to the direction of the relationship. Also, correlation does not prove causation. Example – With a decrease in the number of pirates, there has been an increase in global warming over the same period. Therefore, global warming is caused by a lack of pirates.

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Methodology in Psychology

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Methodology in Psychology Experiments – a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). Independent variable – the experimental factor that is manipulated. The variable whose effect is being studied. Example – injection of stem cells into an injured spinal cord. Dependent variable – the outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. Example – motor ability in the lower limbs.

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Methodology in Psychology Random assignment – assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the subjects assigned to the different groups.

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Methodology in Psychology Double-blind procedure – an experimental procedure in which both the research Participants and the research staff are unknowledgeable (blind) about whether the Research participants have received the treatment or the placebo. Commonly Used now in drug evaluation studies. Placebo effect – experimental results caused by expectations alone. Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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Methodology in Psychology Experimental Group – In an experimental group, the group is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Control Group – in an experiment, The group that is not exposed to The treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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Methodology in Psychology Describing Data –Measures of Central Tendency Mean – the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and Then dividing by the number of scores. Median – the middle score in a distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it.

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Methodology in Psychology Describing Data –Measures of Central Tendency Mode – the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. Range – the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

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Methodology in Psychology Measures of Variation This is a skewed distribution, a few high scores make the mean unrepresentatively high. Standard Deviation – a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

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Methodology in Psychology Measures of Variation Normal curve – a typical bell-shaped distribution of scores. Large numbers of data Sets, for example, heights, weights, intelligence scores, grades, often form a Symmetrical, bell shaped distribution. Also termed a “normal distribution”.

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Methodology in Psychology Measures of Variation Remember formula for standard deviations

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Current Issues in Experimental Psychology Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals? Is it ethical to experiment on people?

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Current Issues in Experimental Psychology

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