TCC Psyc 2301 Lecture 2

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Introduction to Psychology - Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications Author: Jeffery S. Nevid, 2006

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Psychology 2301 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2005 Tarrant County College Northwest Campus WACB Building Room 1106 Tuesday-Thursday 12:30pm-01:50pm Lecture #2 – September 1, 2005

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychology and Methods of Research Foundations of Modern Psychology Psychology – the science of behavior and mental processes. …the study of the mind.. …the study of mental processes.. Although considered a relatively young science, interest in the nature of the mind and behavior can be traced back to ancient times (~7000 years).

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Trephination Trephination – the surgical opening of the skull. Evidence of this procedure being performed over 7000 years ago.

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Trephination Diagram of an late 17 th century trephination procedure. Used to treat a variety of symptoms, including migraines and mental disorders. Volume 6 of 'Anatomie de L'Homme' by Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883).

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John Locke (1632-1704) – a leading British philosopher, viewed the child as a “ Tabula Rasa ”, or blank slate. According to this viewpoint children start out as nothing at all. Their experiences shape them as individuals. Parents were seen as “rational tutors”. These ideas foreshadowed the ideas of behaviorism. Modern Origins of Psychology

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Modern Origins of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) –established the first laboratory dedicated to the study of psychology in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. This is generally considered the founding of psychology as a science. He was interested in studying peoples mental experiences, that is, what one is perceiving, thinking, feeling or sensing at any particular moment. He used the method of introspection , careful self examination and reporting of ones mental experiences. For example, he would expose individuals to a visual or auditory stimulus, and ask them to report their conscious reactions (what it sounded like, how long it lasted, how it felt, etc.). The hope was to develop a model of conscious experience by breaking it down into it’s component parts. This is the goal of the school of psychology known as structuralism .

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Modern Origins of Psychology Edward Titchener (1867-1927) – an Englishman, he brought Wundt’s ideas to the United States and other countries. Became strongly identified with Wundt and the school of structuralism. Through in-depth, careful, and systematic exploration of the introspective and structuralist position, Titchener eventually revealed its significant limitations, ultimately enabling the freeing the development of psychology from structuralist boundaries. [Titchener, however, never abandoned the introspective, structuralist approach.] G. (Granville) Stanley Hall (1846-1924) – seen as the founder of the child study movement and one of the most influential psychologists of the early 20 th century. Along with his well known student Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), he devised theories of child development based on Darwin's reports, emphasizing the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. G. Stanley Hall was one of the first Americans to work in Wundt’s laboratory.

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Modern Origins of Psychology William James (1842-1910) – a medical doctor who made important contributions to psychology and philosophy. He used introspection, but changed his focus to the functions of behavior. He was interested in what function or purpose mental processes served. e.x. why we hold a fork in a particular manner He founded the school of Functionalism , which focused on how behavior helped individuals adapt to the demands of their environment. One of his assertions is that we develop behaviors in order to meet the demands of daily life. (why we do what we do). William James is considered the founder of American Psychology.

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Modern Origins of Psychology According to Behaviorism , only directly observable events, stimuli and responses, can be studied. References to unseen mental processes which cannot be properly defined should be rejected. John Watson (1878-1958) – earned his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Chicago in 1903. Took position at John Hopkins University and began studying biology, physiology, animal behavior and children. Was influenced by the works of Ivan Pavlov in Russia and believed that nerve pathways were conditioned through experience. In 1913, at Columbia University, he delivered a lecture entitled "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It." This lecture would become known as the "behaviorist manifesto" and Watson would become known as the "father of behaviorism."

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Modern Origins of Psychology classical conditioning – eliciting a response by forming an association with a particular stimulus. Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, found that dogs could be made to salivate in response to a stimulus when he paired the presentation of that stimulus with food. John Watson, in a famous experiment, taught Albert, an 11 month old infant, to fear a neutral stimulus, in this case a small white rat, by pairing it with a loud sound, which scared the baby. Watson concluded that parents can mold their children's behavior by carefully controlling stimulus-response relationships. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) – developed operant conditioning theory . Taking classical conditioning a step further, he surmised that behaviors could increased through rewards and decreased through punishments.

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Modern Origins of Psychology Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) – founded he school of Gestalt psychology , Which studies the way the brain organizes and structures our perceptions of the world. He rejected the ideas of the structuralists that mental experiences could be understood by breaking it them into their component parts. Your brain perceives organized patterns or wholes. Involved in studies of visual illusions Gestalt – meaning “unitary form” or pattern. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”

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Modern Origins of Psychology According the Psychoanalytic Perspective , people move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations . Resolving this conflict underlies the individuals ability to engage the outside world. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – a Viennese physician. He developed the psychosexual theory, in which parents management of their child's sexual and aggressive drives during their early years is crucial for personality development. The Psychoanalytic Perspective

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Sigmund Freud, cont. In Freuds theory, three parts of the personality, the id , the ego and the superego , become intergrated during 5 stages of development Id = basic biological needs and desires. Ego = conscious, rational part of the personality. Mediate the impulses of the Id. Later on, balances the conflicting influence of the Id and Superego. Superego = Develops from interactions with the parents between 3 and 6 years of age. According to Freud’s theory, the relationship established between the id, ego and superego during preschool years determine and individuals basic personality. Some relevant criticisms of Freud showed that he overemphasized sexual feelings during development. And, perhaps most importantly, he never studied children directly himself. Modern Origins of Psychology

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Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology Behavioral perspective – focuses on observable behavior and the role of learning in behavior. traditional behaviorism (often called learning) social-cognitive theory (social-learning theory)- role of cognitive factors, not only rewards and punishements. Attempt to redefine “mental processes”. behavior therapy – systematic application of learning principles (i.e. classical conditioning, operant conditioning) to help people acquire more adaptive behaviors. General Question – How do early learning experiences shape our behavior as adults?

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Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology Psychodynamic perspective- more emphasis now on processes of self-awareness, self-direction and conscious choice. General Question – How do unresolved conflicts from childhood affect adult behavior? How can people be helped with these conflicts? Humanistic perspective – point to free will and conscious choice are essential aspects are essential aspects of human life. Rejected mainstream behaviorism and psychoanalysis as to extreme. Known as the “third force” in psychology. They also stress the creative potential of individuals and their ability to make choices. General Question – How do people pursue goals that give their lifes a sense of meaning and purpose?

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Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology Cognitive perspective – study mental processes by which we acquire knowledge. e.x. learning, problem solving, language General Question – How do people solve problems, make decisions, and develop language Sociocultural perspective – examine the roles of social and cultural influences. e.x. ethnicity, gender, lifestyle, income, etc. Diversity a major issue. Very complex, looks at a wide variety of influences. General Question – How do concepts of self differ across cultures? How do social and cultural influences shape behavior. Physiological perspective – relationship between brain and spinal cord processes and behavior. (e.x role of hormones, drugs, injury) General Question – How do biological structures and processes make behavior possible? What roles do nature, and nuture play in areas such as intelligence, language, development and aggression.

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Specialty Areas of Psychology Experimental Comparative Physiological Clinical Counseling School Educational Developmental Personality Social Environmental Industrial/Organizational Health Consumer Emerging areas ? Neuropsychology Geropsychology Forensic Sports (overheads) – speciality, location, diversity

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Research Methods in Psychology Scientific Method – framework for acquiring knowledge based on careful observation and experimentation. Four general steps; 1. develop a research question 2. Framing a research question or hypothesis. Usually drawn from a theory of an observed relationship 3. Gathering evidence to test the theory. 4. Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis. overhead – general steps in the scientific method Important Terms statistics – tabulating and analyzing numerical data variable – a factor that is varied in an experiment. dependent variable – variable being measured independent variable – variable being manipulated

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Research Methods in Psychology Case Study Method – in depth study of one or more individuals. Can produce important information, but lacks scientific control. e.x. Phineas Gage – railroad foreman who suffered a brain injury in mid 1800s. Survived through the care of a doctor who also wrote up his case and submitted it to the British Medical Journal? Became a turning point in the study of brain function – key concept introduced was localization of function.

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Research Methods in Psychology Survey Method – gathers information from target groups of people through the use of structured interviews or questionnaires. population – total group of people of interest samples – segments of a population. random samples – individuals selected at random from a population

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Research Methods in Psychology Naturalistic Observation – careful observation of behavior in its natural settings. Here you can examine behavior as it unfolds, but you may risk influencing the behavior you are observing. e.x Jane Goodall studied chimp behavior in Africa. Noticed tool use, social behavior such as kissing, etc. BEWARE – correlation does not imply causation (shoe size, vocabulary) Correlational Method – examines relationships between variables. A correlational coefficient reflects the degree of correlation, from -1.0 to 1.0. The higher the coeffcient, the stronger the relatioship a negative (-) correlation means the levels of the variables vary in different directions (e.x. DWI, live expectancy) a positive correlation means the variables vary in the same direction (e.x. stress and depression)

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Research Methods in Psychology Experimental Method – direct exploration of cause and effect relationships. independent variables – variable being manipulated dependent variable – variable being measured e.x. drug X as independent variable, cholesterol level as dependent variable control groups – do not receive experimental treatment or manipulation e.x. no drug X placebo = inert substance or condition that resembles active treatment. single blind studies – subjects uninformed as whether or not they are receiving experimental treatment double blind studies – both experimenter and subject unaware of the distribution of treatments

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