Week 1 Lecture - Intro to Anatomy audio

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Goals Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Levels of Structural Organization Maintaining Life Necessary life functions Survival needs Homeostasis Negative feedback Positive feedback

The Human Body – An Orientation:

The Human Body – An Orientation Anatomy – study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology – study of how the body and its parts work or function

Anatomy – Levels of Study:

Anatomy – Levels of Study Gross Anatomy Large structures Easily observable Microscopic Anatomy Very small Only viewed with microscope Cytology & histology

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cardiovascular system Organelle Molecule Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 1.1


. Digestive system Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) Respiratory system Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide Food O 2 CO 2 Cardiovascular system Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs Interstitial fluid Nutrients Urinary system Eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid Integumentary system Protects the body as a whole from the external environment Blood Heart Feces Urine CO 2 O 2

Maintaining Life:

Necessary Life Functions Survival Needs Things the body must do in order to survive Think processes 8 of them Things that the body must have in order to survive Think environment 5 of them Maintaining Life

Necessary Life Functions:

Necessary Life Functions Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments via plasma membranes and skin Movement – locomotion and movement of substances Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli Digestion – break down and delivery of nutrients Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells Excretion: removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion Reproduction - cell division and production of offspring Growth: Increase in size of a body part or of organism

Survival Needs:

Survival Needs Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins Oxygen Essential for energy release (ATP production) Water Most abundant chemical in the body (60-80% of body weight) Site of chemical reactions Normal body temperature Affects rate of chemical reactions Appropriate atmospheric pressure For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs


Homeostasis Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes Very important concept throughout this course

Components of a Control Mechanism:

Components of a Control Mechanism Receptor (sensor) Monitors the environment Responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables) Control center Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained Receives input from receptor Determines appropriate response Effector Receives output from control center Provides the means to respond Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor detects change. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level. Receptor Effector Control Center BALANCE Afferent pathway Efferent pathway IMBALANCE IMBALANCE 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.4

Homeostasis Control Mechanisms:

Negative Feedback Mechanism Positive Feedback Mechanism Shuts off original stimulus Returns variable back to normal Performs the opposite of the stimulus Most feedback mechanisms Increases the original stimulus Keeps the variable going in the same direction as the stimulus does not last forever (normally) Controls rare events or involved with disease processes Homeostasis Control Mechanisms

Negative Feedback:

Figure 1.5 Sweat glands activated Shivering begins Stimulus Body temperature rises BALANCE Information sent along the afferent pathway to control center Information sent along the afferent pathway to control center Afferent pathway Afferent pathway Efferent pathway Efferent pathway Information sent along the efferent pathway to effectors Information sent along the efferent pathway to effectors Stimulus Body temperature falls Receptors Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain Receptors Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain Effectors Sweat glands Effectors Skeletal muscles Control Center (thermoregulatory center in brain) Control Center (thermoregulatory center in brain) Response Evaporation of sweat Body temperature falls; stimulus ends Response Body temperature rises; stimulus ends Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback:

Feedback cycle ends when plug is formed. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Positive feedback loop Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals. Released chemicals attract more platelets. Platelet plug forms. 1 2 3 4 Figure 1.6 Positive Feedback



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