REALISM : REALISM Dr. Sushil Kumar SinghLecturer LOVELY INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONLOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITYPUNJAB MEANING : MEANING REALISM EMERGED AS A REACTION AGAINST IDEALISM
REALISM ACCEPTS THE EXISTENCE OF REAL THINGS WHICH CAN BE COMPREHENDED.
REALITY, KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES EXIST INDEPENDENT OF THE HUMAN MIND. TREES, STICKS AND STONES EXIST WHETHER OR NOT THERE IS A HUMAN MIND TO PERCEIVE THEM. Slide 3: Ideas must be subject to public verification
must be proven through scientific experimentation
“Science for the sake of science”
Need to study nature systematically
Deductive reasoning - truth is derived from generalizations
Earth is the center of the universe LEADERS OF REALISM : LEADERS OF REALISM Aristotle (383-323 BC): A Greek Philosopher Propounder of Realism
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
John Locke (1690-1781 AD): An Eng. Philosopher
who gave new impetus to Realism Aristotle : Aristotle Ideas may be important but a proper study of matter could lead us to better and more distinct ideas.
Golden Mean - a path between extremes
Balance is key - body and mind operate together in a balanced whole Thomas Aquinas : Thomas Aquinas God created matter; therefore it must be ok to learn about it
This view helped lead civilization out of the dark ages, replaced the influence of Augustine Sir Francis Bacon : Sir Francis Bacon Need to rid our mind of “idols”
Idol of the Den - we believe things because of limited experience
Idol of the Tribe - we believe things because many people believe them
Idol of the Marketplace - we are mislead by language
Idol of the Theatre - Religion and philosophy may prevent us from see the world objectively
Known as the father of inductive reasoning
arrive at generalizations from systematic observations of particulars
Died as a result of the only experiment he performed - stuffed a dead chicken with snow to see if it would preserve the flesh, caught a cold and died John Locke : John Locke At birth, the mind is a blank sheet of paper - a tabla rasa
All ideas are derived from experience by way of sensation and reflection DEFINITIONS : DEFINITIONS Swami Ram Tirath: “Realism means a brief or theory which looks upon the world as it seems to us to be a mere phenomenon”. He further said “the doctrine of realism asserts that there is a real world of things beyond and corresponding to the object of our perception.
Carter V Good: “Realism is the doctrine that objective reality of the material universe exists independently of the conscious mind; its nature and properties are being affected by being known.” MAIN FEATURES OF REALISM : MAIN FEATURES OF REALISM Nature of Reality: Real is the world, we live in.
Knowledge is derived from experience.
Everything that exists is matter or energy or matter in motion.
Universe is operated by the laws of nature.
Truth can be discovered with the help of scientific methods.
Material world has independent existence and it does not depend upon a knowing mind. CONTRIBUTION OF REALISM TO EDUCATION : CONTRIBUTION OF REALISM TO EDUCATION REALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION
-PREPARATION FOR A HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL LIFE
-EDUCATION SHOULD PREPARE CHILD FOR REAL LIFE
-DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL & PHYSICAL FACULTIES
-DEVELOPMENT OF SENSES THROUGH EXPERIENCE
-TO PROVIDE KNOWLEDGE OF BOTH SOCIETY AND EXTERNAL NATURE
-CHILD SHOULD BE TRAINED FOR A VOCATIONAL PURSUIT REALISM AND CURRICULUM : REALISM AND CURRICULUM EMPHASIS ON FINDING OUT THE TRUTH; SCIENCES SHOULD BE GIVEN A PROMINENT PLACE
IMPORTANT PLACE FOR THE STUDY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES
DIVERSIFICATION OF COURSES; RELATED TO LIFE
REALISM INCLUDES CONTEMPORARY EVENTS IN THE CURRICULUM
REALISM LAYS STRESS ON THE INCLUSION OF VOCATIONAL COURSES IN THE CURRICULUM Slide 13: REALISM AND THE TEACHER
DOES NOT ATTACH MUCH IMPORTANCE TO THE PERSONALITY OF THE TEACHER
REALISM AND DISCIPLINE
REALISM BELIEVES IN GIVING CONSIDERABLE FREEDOM TO THE CHILD