Newer Drug Delivery System

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Newer Drug Delivery:

Newer Drug Delivery Dr.S.P.Dhanya Assistant Professor Govt TDMC,Alappuzha

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Drug Delivery Systems Oral Inject-able Mucosal Trans-dermal Ocular Vaginal/Anal Needle Needle-less Nasal Buccal Pulmonary Active Passive Topical

Demerits of conventional dosage forms:

Demerits of conventional dosage forms Large amount of drug is delivered to the site Therapeutic conc. is not maintained Repeated dosage is necessary Less patient compliance Fluctations in concentration of drug in blood

Definition:

Definition Therapeutic systems that incorporate drugs in a dosage form that releases the medication at a predetermined site at a predetermined rate over an extended period of time from a single application

PowerPoint Presentation:

Delivery of the drug a) controlled rate b) slow delivery c) targetted delivery 2. Longer duration of action 3.  bioavailability 4.  Adverse Effects  compliance ADVANTAGES

Types:

Types Prolonged release Oral preparations Parenteral preparations Targeted delivery systems Local delivery systems

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Prolonged release Oral preparations

Prodrugs:

Prodrugs Inactive form of the drug which undergoes biotransformation inside the body to pharmacologically active drug They increase Absorption Distribution Duration of action

PRODRUG:

PRODRUG Overcome 1) Pharmaceutical barrier Chloramphenicol palmitate 2) Pharmacokinetic barrier L-Dopa 3)Increase bioavailability Esterification of Ampicillin 4)Increase solubilty Esterification of vidarabine

ENTERIC COATED TABLETS & CAPSULES:

ENTERIC COATED TABLETS & CAPSULES Drug coated with acid resistant substance Prevent gastric irritation Prevent alteration of drug in the stomach To get desired conc. of drug in small intestine Retards rate of absorption and prolongs duration of action b) Drug coated with azopolymers for drug delivery to colon

ENTERIC COATED TABLETS & CAPSULES:

ENTERIC COATED TABLETS & CAPSULES

CONTROLLED RELEASE / EXTENDED RELEASE / SUSTAINED RELEASE PREPARATIONS:

CONTROLLED RELEASE / EXTENDED RELEASE / SUSTAINED RELEASE PREPARATIONS Release medication in a predetermined manner over extended period of time Medicines – incorporated in different layers – release drug at different time interval OR Granules of the drug can have different coatings that dissolve at different time intervals OR 3. Medication can be covered with a gel which can swell and act like a semipermeable membrane

Granules of the drug can have different coatings that dissolve at different time intervals :

Granules of the drug can have different coatings that dissolve at different time intervals v v v v v

Medication can be covered with a gel which can swell and act like a semipermeable membrane:

Medication can be covered with a gel which can swell and act like a semipermeable membrane

ADVANTAGES:

ADVANTAGES Therapeutic effect for longer time Less fluctuation  frequency of drug administration  intensity / incidence of adverse effects DISADVANTAGES Dose dumping can occur

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Prolonged Release Parenteral preparations

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Pumps Osmotic pumps Portable pumps Computerised pumps Implantable pumps Pens Pellets Transdermal delivery system

PUMPS:

PUMPS They deliver drugs at a predetermined rate for a specific period following a single application. Oral: Tablet may contain Water soluble osmotically active drug OR 2) Drug may be blended with osmotically active diluent Surrounded with a semipermeable membrane

MECHANICAL PUMPS:

MECHANICAL PUMPS Insulin infusion devices: - Open loop-CSII-Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion device - Closed loop systems Advantages: More physiological & better control Less variations in absorption

Disadvantage:

Disadvantage Tube can get kinked Dose dumping

CSI I:

CSI I Insulin reservoir Program chip Keypad Display screen

Patient controlled analgesia :

Patient controlled analgesia Infusion pump - I/V - Epidural Patient can control the infusion rate and provide the degree of pain control

PCA:

PCA

Pens:

Pens

IMPLANTS:

IMPLANTS Drugs placed in pellets / capsules implanted in body Eg: Norplant-Contraceptive implant Levonorgesterel  5 yrs subcutaneously

TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM or TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM:

TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM or TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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Skin – Site of administration of systemically active drug Advantages: Avoid hepatic 1 st pass metabolism Maintains constant blood level for longer period without fluctuation Improves bioavailability  dose to be administered and  side effects  GI effects Easy to discontinue in case of toxicity  patient compliance Non invasive method

DISADVANTAGE:

DISADVANTAGE Cannot deliver ionic drugs or drugs with large molecular weight Skin irritation High cost Cannot deliver drugs in a pulsatile manner / achieve high drug level in plasma

TRANSDERMAL PATCH:

TRANSDERMAL PATCH Scopolamine transdermal patch Motion sickness Lasts 72hr Applied 4hrs before journey Oral dose - action : 4-6hrs Packing membrane Adhesive Skin Drug reservoir Semipermeable membrane

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Nitroglycerine : Angina – 1d Clonidine : Hypertension – 7d Nicotine : Smokers - 1 d Fentanyl : Pain - 3 d Permeability of the skin can be altered by: Physical – Ultrasound, radiations Chemical – Solvents, Detergents Pathological conditions

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Local controlled delivery systems

OCULAR SYSTEMS:

OCULAR SYSTEMS Ocusert: Eg: Pilocarpine ocusert - Treatment of glaucoma Lasts 7 days Less side effects Dose also  Disadvantage: Difficult to retain in the eye

VAGINAL & UTERINE SYSTEMS:

VAGINAL & UTERINE SYSTEMS Mainly for contraceptive purposes Sustained release – intrauterine devices Copper-T Cu2+ released by ionisation & chelation from a copper wire Progestasert: Hormone releasing IUCD Release 60g/d of progesterone for 1 year

VAGINAL & UTERINE SYSTEMS:

VAGINAL & UTERINE SYSTEMS

DINOPROSTONE VAGINAL INSERT:

DINOPROSTONE VAGINAL INSERT Inserted vaginally Absorbs water swells and release drug cervical ripening

IONTOPHORESIS:

IONTOPHORESIS

IONTOPHORESIS:

IONTOPHORESIS

IONTOPHORESIS:

IONTOPHORESIS Mild electric current applied for the transport of drug across the skin Eg: Vasopressin Sonophoresis (Phonophoresis) Use Ultrasound for transport of drug across the skin

Drug eluting stents: :

Drug eluting stents: Stents can be coated with drugs embedded in a surface polymer

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Targeted drug delivery systems

LIPOSOMES :

LIPOSOMES B ilayered vesicles made of amphipathic phospholipids E g: Liposomal Amphotericin B

ANTIBODY DRUG CONJUGATE:

ANTIBODY DRUG CONJUGATE Gemtuzumab + Denileukin Difitox Yttrium conj to Ibritumonab

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Nanoparticles Gene Therapy

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Thank You

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