emerging and reemerging diseases.

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Infectious Disease- Trends: 

Infectious Disease- Trends Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Receded in Western countries 20 th century Urban sanitation, improved housing, personal hygiene, antisepsis & vaccination Antibiotics further suppressed morbidity & mortality

Infectious Disease- Trends: 

Infectious Disease- Trends Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Since last quarter of 20 th century- New & Resurgent infectious diseases Unusually large number- Rotavirus, Cryptosporidiosis, HIV/AIDS, Hantaviraus, Lyme disease, Legionellosis, Hepatitis C……

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? AIDS Avian Influenza Ebola Marburg Cholera Rift Valley Fever Typhoid Tuberculosis Leptospirosis Malaria Chikungunya Dengue JE Antimicrobial resistance UP Guinea worm Smallpox Yaws Poliomyelitis Measles Leprosy Neonatal tetanus DOWN Infectious Diseases: A World in Transition Dr Snigdha Pattnaik

Definition: 

Definition Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Emerging infectious disease Newly identified & previously unknown infectious agents that cause public health problems either locally or internationally

Definition: 

Definition Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Re-emerging infectious disease Infectious agents that have been known for some time, had fallen to such low levels that they were no longer considered public health problems & are now showing upward trends in incidence or prevalence worldwide

Factors Contributing To Emergence: 

Factors Contributing To Emergence Dr Snigdha Pattnaik AGENT Evolution of pathogenic infectious agents (microbial adaptation & change) Development of resistance to drugs Resistance of vectors to pesticides

Factors Contributing To Emergence: 

Factors Contributing To Emergence Dr Snigdha Pattnaik HOST Human demographic change (inhabiting new areas) Human behaviour (sexual & drug use) Human susceptibility to infection (Immunosuppression) Poverty & social inequality

Factors Contributing To Emergence: 

Factors Contributing To Emergence Dr Snigdha Pattnaik ENVIRONMENT Climate & changing ecosystems Economic development & Land use (urbanization, deforestation) Technology & industry (food processing & handling)

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik International travel & commerce Breakdown of public health measure (war, unrest, overcrowding) Deterioration in surveillance systems (lack of political will)

Transmission of Infectious Agent from Animals to Humans: 

Transmission of Infectious Agent from Animals to Humans Dr Snigdha Pattnaik >2/3 rd emerging infections originate from animals- wild & domestic Emerging Influenza infections in Humans associated with Geese, Chickens & Pigs Animal displacement in search of food after deforestation/ climate change (Lassa fever) Humans themselves penetrate/ modify unpopulated regions- come closer to animal reservoirs/ vectors (Yellow fever, Malaria)

Climate & Environmental Changes: 

Climate & Environmental Changes Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Deforestation forces animals into closer human contact- increased possibility for agents to breach species barrier between animals & humans El Nino- Triggers natural disasters & related outbreaks of infectious diseases (Malaria, Cholera) Global warming- spread of Malaria, Dengue, Leishmaniasis, Filariasis

Poverty, Neglect & Weakening of Health Infrastructure: 

Poverty, Neglect & Weakening of Health Infrastructure Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Poor populations- major reservoir & source of continued transmission Poverty- Malnutrition- Severe infectious disease cycle Lack of funding, Poor prioritization of health funds, Misplaced in curative rather than preventive infrastructure, Failure to develop adequate health delivery systems

Uncontrolled Urbanization & Population Displacement: 

Uncontrolled Urbanization & Population Displacement Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Growth of densely populated cities- substandard housing, unsafe water, poor sanitation, overcrowding, indoor air pollution (>10% preventable ill health) Problem of refugees & displaced persons Diarrhoeal & Intestinal parasitic diseases, ARI Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi)- Changes in ecology, increasing deer populations, suburban migration of population

Human Behaviour: 

Human Behaviour Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Unsafe sexual practices (HIV, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis) Changes in agricultural & food production patterns- food-borne infectious agents (E. coli) Increased international travel (Influenza) Outdoor activity

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: 

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Causes: Wrong prescribing practices non-adherence by patients Counterfeit drugs Use of anti-infective drugs in animals & plants

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Loss of effectiveness: Community-acquired (TB, Pneumococcal) & Hospital-acquired (Enterococcal, Staphylococcal Antiviral (HIV), Antiprotozoal (Malaria), Antifungal

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: 

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Consequences Prolonged hospital admissions Higher death rates from infections Requires more expensive, more toxic drugs Higher health care costs

PowerPoint Presentation: 

HUMAN ANIMALS ENVIRONMENT VECTORS Zoonosis Population Growth Mega-cities Migration Exploitation Pollution Climate change Vector proliferation Vector resistance Transmission Antibiotics Intensive farming Food production

Examples of recent emerging diseases: 

Examples of recent emerging diseases Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Source: NATURE; Vol 430; July 2004; www.nature.com/nature

Examples of Emerging Infectious Diseases: 

Examples of Emerging Infectious Diseases Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Hepatitis C- First identified in 1989 In mid 1990s estimated global prevalence 3% Hepatitis B- Identified several decades earlier Upward trend in all countries Prevalence >90% in high-risk population

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Zoonoses- 1,415 microbes are infectious for human Of these, 868 (61%) considered zoonotic 70% of newly recognized pathogens are zoonoses

Emerging Zoonoses: Human-animal interface: 

Emerging Zoonoses: Human-animal interface Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Marburg virus Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Ebola virus Borrelia burgdorferi: Lyme Deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) Mostomys rodent: Lassa fever Avian influenza virus Bats: Nipah virus

SARS: The First Emerging Infectious Disease Of The 21st Century : 

SARS: The First Emerging Infectious Disease Of The 21st Century Dr Snigdha Pattnaik No infectious disease has spread so fast and far as SARS did in 2003

Lesson learnt from SARS: 

Lesson learnt from SARS Dr Snigdha Pattnaik An infectious disease in one country is a threat to all Important role of air travel in international spread Tremendous negative economic impact on trade, travel and tourism, estimated loss of $ 30 to $150 billion

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik High level commitment is crucial for rapid containment WHO can play a critical role in catalyzing international cooperation and support Global partnerships & rapid sharing of data/information enhances preparedness and response

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1): 

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Since Nov 2003, avian influenza H5N1 in birds affected 60 countries across Asia, Europe, Middle-East & Africa >220 million birds killed by AI virus or culled to prevent further spread Majority of human H5N1 infection due to direct contact with birds infected with virus

Novel Swine origin Influenza A (H1N1): 

Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Novel Swine origin Influenza A (H1N1) Swine flu causes respiratory disease in pigs – high level of illness, low death rates Pigs can get infected by human, avian and swine influenza virus Occasional human swine infection reported In US from December 2005 to February 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine flu reported

Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1): 

Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1) March 18 2009 – ILI outbreak reported in Mexico April 15 th CDC identifies H1N1 (swine flu) April 25 th WHO declares public health emergency April 27 th Pandemic alert raised to phase 4 April 29 th Pandemic alert raised to phase 5

Influenza A (H1N1): 

Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Influenza A (H1N1) By May 5 th more than 1000 cases confirmed in 21 countries Screening at airports for flu like symptoms (especially passengers coming from affected area) Schools closed in many states in USA May 16 th India reports first confirmed case Stockpiling of antiviral drugs and preparations to make a new effective vaccine

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Dr Snigdha Pattnaik 30

Pandemic HINI (Swine flu): 

Pandemic HINI (Swine flu) Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Worldwide- 162,380 cases 1154 deaths India- 558 cases 1 death

Examples of Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases: 

Examples of Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Diphtheria- Early 1990s epidemic in Eastern Europe(1980- 1% cases; 1994- 90% cases) Cholera- 100% increase worldwide in 1998 (new strain eltor, 0139) Human Plague- India (1994) after 15-30 years absence. Dengue/ DHF- Over past 40 years, 20-fold increase to nearly 0.5 million (between 1990-98)

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Dr Snigdha Pattnaik

Bioterrorism: 

Bioterrorism Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Possible deliberate release of infectious agents by dissident individuals or terrorist groups Biological agents are attractive instruments of terror- easy to produce, mass casualties, difficult to detect, widespread panic & civil disruption

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Highest potential- B. anthracis, C. botulinum toxin, F. tularensis, Y. pestis, Variola virus, Viral haemorrhagic fever viruses Likeliest route- aerosol dissemination

Key Tasks in Dealing with Emerging Diseases: 

Key Tasks in Dealing with Emerging Diseases Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Surveillance at national, regional, global level epidemiological, laboratory ecological anthropological Investigation and early control measures Implement prevention measures behavioural, political, environmental Monitoring, evaluation

National surveillance: current situation: 

National surveillance: current situation Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Independent vertical control programmes Surveillance gaps for important diseases Limited capacity in field epidemiology, laboratory diagnostic testing, rapid field investigations Inappropriate case definitions

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Delays in reporting, poor analysis of data and information at all levels No feedback to periphery Insufficient preparedness to control epidemics No evaluation

Solutions: 

Solutions Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Public health surveillance & response systems Rapidly detect unusual, unexpected, unexplained disease patterns Track & exchange information in real time Response effort that can quickly become global Contain transmission swiftly & decisively

GOARN: 

GOARN Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network Coordinated by WHO Mechanism for combating international disease outbreaks Ensure rapid deployment of technical assistance, contribute to long-term epidemic preparedness & capacity building

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Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Sharing Outbreak-related Information with Public Health Professionals with Public

Solutions: 

Solutions Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Internet-based information technologies Improve disease reporting Facilitate emergency communications & Dissemination of information Human Genome Project Role of human genetics in disease susceptibility, progression & host response

Solutions: 

Solutions Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Microbial genetics Methods for disease detection, control & preventio Improved diagnostic techniques & new vaccines Geographic Imaging Systems Monitor environmental changes that influence disease emergence & transmission

Key tasks - carried out by whom?: 

Key tasks - carried out by whom? Dr Snigdha Pattnaik National Regional Global Synergy

What skills are needed?: 

What skills are needed? Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Multiple expertise needed ! Infectious diseases Epidemio- logy Public Health International field experience Information management Laboratory Telecom. & Informatics

Global Disease Intelligence: A world on the alert: 

Global Disease Intelligence: A world on the alert Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Collection Verification Distribution Response

The Best Defense (Multi-factorial): 

The Best Defense (Multi-factorial) Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Coordinated, well-prepared, well-equipped PH systems Partnerships- clinicians, laboritarians & PH agencies Improved methods for detection & surveillance

CONTD.: 

CONTD. Dr Snigdha Pattnaik Effective preventive & therapeutic technologies Strengthened response capacity Political commitment & adequate resources to address underlying socio-economic factors International collaboration & communication