Livestock Farming System

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Dr SK Shrivastava M.V.Sc. (I.V.R.I.) "AASRA" Pashu Ashray Sthal Mata Mandir, M.P. Bhopal LIVESTOCK BASED FARMING SYSTEM & Dairy Schemes for Farmers

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? Role of live stock in the betterment of Agri- economy . Sp. For Farmers

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in the world > 2,445 million people economically active in agriculture, 2 /3 – 3/4 of them are wholly or partly dependent on livestock farming. India is rich in flora & fauna & continues to be vital avenue for employment and income generation, especially in rural areas. In India 66% of economically active population, engaged in agriculture, >26% of Gross Domestic Product GDP is from agriculture. The share of livestock product is estimated at 21% of total agricultural sector.

Intoduction : 

Intoduction --In 2001 -India became the world leader in milk production with a production volume of 84 million tons. India has about three times as many dairy animals as the USA, which produces around 75 milliontons, over 80 percent being kept in herds of 2 to 8 animals

As per livestock census 2003, cattle are about 38.3% of total livestock population in the country (484 million). : 

As per livestock census 2003, cattle are about 38.3% of total livestock population in the country (484 million).

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Annual milk yield per dairy animal in India is about one tenth of that achieved in the USA and about one fifth of the yield of a grass-fed New Zealand dairy cow.

Milk Production in India : 

Milk Production in India 1950 – 17 million tonnes 1996 – 70.8 million tonnes 1997 – 74.3 mT (Projected) 2020 – 240 mT Expected to reach- 220 to 250 mT – 2020 India contributes to world milk production rise from 12-15 % & it will increase upto 30-35% (year 2020) India contributes 35% of total Asian milk

Percapita availability: : 

Percapita availability: Recommanded by ICMR – 250 gmIndia 1950-132 gm 1997-214 gm 2020-290 gm

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India;s milk production is expected to grow at about 3 per cent per annum. However, due to increasing population, per capita availability of milk is expected to increase by only about 1.5 per cent per annum. For an economy growing at about 8 per cent per annum, this increase in availability will be grossly inadequate. Production growing at only 3 per cent and consumption growing at more than double the rate leads to a mismatch between demand and supply. This creates opportunities for new entrants to this industry.

Sources of income from L/s : 

Sources of income from L/s Milk & milk products Meat &meat products Skin & bones Bio- fertilizers Source of Energy- Gobar gas & bull power

Role of cooperatives: : 

Role of cooperatives: The presence of milk cooperatives helps to organize the industry and give this sector a distinct advantage. --allow for much easier marketing of the end product as compared to other businesses. - assure the farmer of not only a market for their product but also take care of logistical issues like transportation and containers. The farmer is spared these costs as well as the cost of putting up a retail outlet. -allow for stable selling rate which does not change even when they yield is surplus. -Payments are guaranteed to milk producers and ensured within a maximum of 30 days. -play an important role by eliminating middlemen and the associated costs.

Role of State and Central Government: : 

Role of State and Central Government: There are several financial incentives provided by the governments for setting up infrastructural facilities for milk production. The tenth plan outlay for animal husbandry and dairying was Rs. 2500 crores. The NABARD assists farmers with loans and refinancing facilities for dairy farming. The interest charged ranges between 12% to 13% depending on the amount of loan taken. Loans are to be repaid in monthly installments usually within a period of 5 years.

How safe is the Dairy Business? : 

How safe is the Dairy Business? Reasons are: It is eco-friendly and does not cause environmental pollution as compared to other industries. Round the year demand for milk and its products. Demand for Milk is increasing day by day. does not need skilled labor, thus reducing costs and making availability of labor easy. Minimum investment on inventory. (No need to to stock raw materials in huge quantities.) Dairy is not dependant on rains and production goes on year round.

How safe is the Dairy Business? : 

How safe is the Dairy Business? Returns are available within a month. Additional income and increases returns by use of by products. Like dung -biogas for cooking , as manure and compost. Availability of Veterinary Aid up to village level. No direct competition from the foreign counterparts. Entire establishment can be shifted to a new location (if need arises e.g. Fire, Floods etc.) One can insure animals.

Training: : 

Training: Getting some initial professional training would help enhance productivity of the business. Opportunities for training are available with most of the: Agricultural/Veterinary Universities of various states Krishi Vigyan Kendras State Department of Animal Husbandry National level organizations like National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) Karnal (Haryana) provide training on rearing of dairy animals and manufacture of milk products. Alternately training facilities are also available in some non-governmental organizations that are active in farming sectors.

Growth Drivers : 

Growth Drivers Potential to Consume- Strong Co-operative Effort-

Growth Inhibitors : 

Growth Inhibitors Low Genetic Potential- While there has been great emphasis in recent times on enhancing the genetic potential of the Indian milch animal, much progress remains to be made.

Feeding Practices : 

Feeding Practices The vast majority of the cattle population is grazed and fed on agricultural residues and home mixed ingredients or concentrates.

Trends in Milk production : 

Trends in Milk production Uttar Pradesh continues to be the largest milk producing state MP on Fifth and Mizoram the smallest.

Considerations required to help dairy development : 

Considerations required to help dairy development Encouraging cattle breeding in private sector with suitable incentives & a thrust on crossbred female calf rearing scheme. Fodder production along with timber, fuel & fodder trees (Silvipastoral system- Rajsthan) Fodder production on Gochar land (Gujrat pattern) Fodder seed production in private sector Dev. Of principal cattle market with the help of Gram Panchayat & organize / purchase of animals for beneficiaries. (Haryana pattern)

Considerations required to help dairy development : 

Considerations required to help dairy development Encouraging milk marketing & manufacturing of milk products by Dairy Co-operative societies or individuals- Encouraging self employment Vety. Practice (AI, PD, DI, Treatment & surgery) Identifying good quality buffalo bulls from farm/ farmers supply them for breeding. Encouraging private enterprise for establishment of small abattoirs.

Imp. Points to maximize profit from dairy : 

Imp. Points to maximize profit from dairy Selection of suitable breed Proper scientific management Feeding with balanced nutrients Adoption of advance tech. of breeding Disease control & prevention Marketing of your product

The minimum economic size to go with? : 

The minimum economic size to go with? Under Indian condition a commercial dairy farm should consist of minimum 20 animals (10 cows, 10 buffaloes) this strength can easily go up to 100 animals in proportion of 50:50 or 40:60. After this however, you need to review your strength and market potential before you chose to go for expansion.

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Important Cattle Breeds

Indian Cattle Breeds : 

Indian Cattle Breeds A. Milch breeds Sahiwal Punjab, Haryana, U.P, Delhi, Bihar and M.P. Milk yield – Under village condition :1600 Ltrs             – Under commercial farms: 2100 Ltrs Age at first calving - 32-36 months Calving interval – 15 month

Gir : 

Gir Gir forest areas of South Kathiawa Milk yield – Under village condition : 1000 Ltrs            – Under commercial farms: 1600 Ltrs

Tharparkar : 

Tharparkar Jodhpur, Kutch and Jaisalmer Milk yield   – Under village condition :1300 Ltrs              – Under commercial farms: 1800 Ltrs

Red Sindhi : 

Red Sindhi Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa. Milk yield – Under village condition :1300 Ltrs            – Under commercial farms: 1900 Ltrs

Milch and Draught breeds-Ongole : 

Milch and Draught breeds-Ongole Nellore, Krishna, Godavari and Guntur district of A.P. Milk yield –1300 Ltrs Bullocks are powerful for cart work and heavy ploughing.

Hariana : 

Hariana Karnal, Hisar and Gurgaon district of Haryana, Delhi and western M.P Milk yield –1200 -1500 LtrsBullocks are powerful for road transport and rapid ploughing

Kankrej : 

Kankrej Mainly found in GuajratMilk yield – Under village condition :1100 Ltrs               – Under commercial farms : 1400 LtrsAge at first calving -36 to 42 monthsCalving interval – 15 to 16 monthsBullocks are fast, active and strong. Good for plough and cart purpose

Deoni : 

Deoni North western and western parts of A.P. Cows are good milk producers and bullocks are good for work

Draught Breeds-Amritmahal : 

Draught Breeds-Amritmahal Karnataka. Best suitable for ploughing and transport

Hallikar : 

Hallikar Mainly found in Tumkur, Hassan and Mysore districts of Karnataka

Kangayam : 

Kangayam Mainly found in Coimbatore, Erode, Namakkal, Karur and Dindigul districts of Tamil Nadu. Best suited for ploughing and transport. Withstands hardy conditions.

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Exotic dairy breeds

Jersey : 

Jersey From Denmark Age at first calving : 26-30 months Intercalving – 13-14 months Milk yield – 5000-7000 Ltrs In India this breed has acclimatized well especially in the hot and humid areas

Holstein Friesian : 

Holstein Friesian From Holland Milk yield  - 7200-9000 Ltrs It can perform well in coastal and delta areas

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Breeds of Buffalo






MAHSANA Habitat-Northern Gujarat Average Yield 1700 Kg Horns-Slightly curved upward, inward Age at First Calving 42.2 months Colour-Black, Dark tan Lactation Length-310 days Size-Medium Calving Interval-476 days Forehead-Wide & slight depression in middle TailLong, Switch black, Brown / white also common

Surti : 

Surti Gujarat1600 Ltrs

Jaffarabadi : : 

Jaffarabadi : Kathiawar district of Gujarat 1800-2000 Ltrs

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Nagpuri Nagpur, Wardha, Akola, Amravathi and Yeotmal in Maharastra. Milk yield – 1030-1500 Ltrs


BHADAWARI Habitat-U.P. and adjoining M.P.Average Milk Yield-1100 Kg Lactation length- 270 days Ageat First Calving 50.0 months Calving Interval -478 days Colour-Copper Horns-Curling downward, backward - then upward coloured hair, Gray skin, White ring under neck Size Medium with wedge shaped body Fore head-Small and bulging between horns Tail-Thick and long with brown switch

General selection procedures for dairy breeds : 

General selection procedures for dairy breeds Selecting a calf in calf show, a cow in cattle show by judging is an art. A dairy farmer should build up his own herd by breeding his own herd.

Selection of dairy cows : 

Selection of dairy cows Following guidelines will be useful for selection of a diary cow. from a cattle fair- its breed characters and milk producing ability History sheet or pedigree sheet generally maintained in organized farms reveals the complete history of animal selection should be carried out during First or Second lactation and that too are month after calving. The maximum yield by dairy cows are noticed during the first five lactations. Watch Three successive complete milkings A cow should allow anybody to milk, and should be docile. It is better to purchase the animals during the months of October and November. Maximum yield is noticed till 90 days after calving.

Breed characteristics of high yielding dairy cows : 

Breed characteristics of high yielding dairy cows Attractive individuality with feminity, vigour, harmonious blending of all parts, impressive style and carriage Well shaped appearance of the body It should have bright eyes with lean neck The udder should be well attached to the abdomen The skin of the udder should have a good network of blood vessels All four quarters of the udder should be well demarcated with well placed teats.

Selecting breeds for Commercial Dairy Farm : 

Selecting breeds for Commercial Dairy Farm Suggestions Under Indian condition a commercial dairy farm should consist of min. 20 animals (10 cows, 10 buffaloes) this strength can easily go up to 100 animals in proportion of 50:50 or 40:60. After this however, you need to review your strength and market potential before you chose to go for expansion. Middle class health-conscious Indian families prefer low fat milk for consumption as liquid milk. It is always better to go for a commercial farm of mixed type. (Cross breed, cows and buffaloes kept in separate rows under one shed). Conduct a through study of the immediate market where you are planning to market your milk You can mix milk from both type of animals and sold as per need of the market. Hotels and some general customers (can be around 30%) prefer pure buffalo milk. Hospitals, sanitariums prefer cow's milk.

Selection of cow/buffalo breeds for commercial farm : 

Selection of cow/buffalo breeds for commercial farm Cows Good quality cows are available in the market and it cost around Rs.2000 to Rs.2500 per liter of milk production per day. (e.g. Cost of a cow producing 10 liter of Milk per day will be between Rs.20,000 to Rs.25,000). If proper care is given, cows breed regularly giving one calf every 13-14 month interval. They are more docile and can be handled easily. Good milk yielding cross breeds (Holstein and Jersey crosses) has well adapted to Indian climate. The fat percentage of cow's milk varies from 3-5.5% and is lower then Buffaloes.

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Buffaloes In India, we have good buffalo breeds like Murrah and Mehsana, which are suitable for commercial dairy farm. Buffalo milk has more demand for making butter and butter oil (Ghee), as fat percentage in milk is higher then cow. Buffalo milk is also preferred for making tea, a welcoming drink in common Indian household. Buffaloes can be maintained on more fibrous crop residues, hence scope for reducing feed cost. Buffaloes largely mature late and give birth to calves at 16 to 18 months interval. Male calves fetch little value. Buffaloes need cooling facility e.g. wallowing tank or showers / foggers with fan.

Infrastructure and Manpower requirements : 

Infrastructure and Manpower requirements the space required per animal – 40 sq.ft in shed and 80 sq.ft open space. Besides, you will also need: One room 10'' x 10'' for keeping implements. One room 10''x 12'' for milk storage Office cum living room of suitable size. Water tank capable of storing minimum 2000 liters Bore well with capacity to fill water tank in 1 hr

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Total land requirement for a unit of 20 animals - 3000 sq.ft. for 100 animals- 13,000 to 15,000 sq.ft (120" x 125''). There should be space for expansion. For 20 animals initially, you can make contractual arrangements for getting an assured supply of 300 kgs. of Lucerne and 400 kgs. of maize fodder per day. However, in long run, as the strength of you farm will go up to 100 animals, It is advisable that you should go for a lease land of 15 to 20 acres with irrigation facility to cultivate green fodder for your animals. (One acre of green fodder cultivation for every five animals is required as a thumb rule.) The economics of whole dairy animal management depends upon its economic feeding. By making fodder's like Lucerne or Berseem available for your animals you can reduced cost on feeding concentrate feed. The strength of labourers in your farm can vary with number of animals usually the thumb rule is one labour for every 10 animals on milk or 20 dry animals or 20 young stock.

Common Management Practices Recommended for Dairy : 

Common Management Practices Recommended for Dairy I. Housing –  Construct shed on dry, properly raised ground.  Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas. The walls of the sheds should be 1.5 to 2 meters high.  The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.  The roof should be 3-4 metres high.

I. Housing – : 

I. Housing – The cattle shed should be well ventilated. The floor should be pucca/hard, even non-slippery impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to remain dry and clean. Provide 0.25 metre broad, pucca drain at the rear of the standing space. A standing space of 2 x 1.05 metre for each animal is needed. The manger space should be 1.05 metre with front height of 0.5 metre and depth of 0.25 metre.

I. Housing – : 

I. Housing – The corners in mangers, troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.  Provide 5-10 sq. metre loaf space for each animal. Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer. In winter keep animals indoor during night and rain. Provide individual bedding daily.

I. Housing – : 

I. Housing – Maintain sanitary condition around shed. Control external parasites (ticks, flies etc.) by spraying the pens, sheds with Malathion or Copper sulphate solution. Drain urine into collection pits and then to the field through irrigation channels. Dispose of dung and urine properly. A gobar gas plant will be an ideal way. Where gobar gas plant is not constructed, convert the dung alongwith bedding material and other farm wastes into compost. Give adequate space for the animals.

Housing Space Requirements for Crossbred cattle : 

Housing Space Requirements for Crossbred cattle

II. Selection of Animal : : 

II. Selection of Animal : Immediately after release of the loan purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market. Select healthy, high yielding animals with the help of bank's technical officer, veterinary/animal husbandry officer of State government/ Zilla Parishad, etc. Purchase freshly calved animals in their second/third lactation. Before purchasing, ascertain actual milk yield by milking the animal three times consecutively. Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear tagging or tattooing).

II. Selection of Animal : : 

II. Selection of Animal : Vaccinate the newly purchased animal against disease.  Keep the newly purchased animal under observation for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the general herd. Purchase a minimum economical unit of two milch animals. Purchase the second animal/second batch after 5-6 months from the purchase of first animal. As buffaloes are seasonal calvers purchase them during July to February.

II. Selection of Animal : : 

II. Selection of Animal : As far as possible purchase the second animal when the first animal is in its late stage of lactation and is about to become dry, thereby maintaining continuity in milk production vis-a-vis income. This will ensure availability of adequate funds for maintaining the dry animals. Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd. Cull the old animals after 6-7 lactations.

III. Feeding of Milch Animals : 

III. Feeding of Milch Animals Feed the animals with best feeds and fodders. Give adequate green fodder in the ration. As far as possible, grow green fodder on your land wherever available. Cut the fodder at the right stage of their growth. Chaff roughage before feeding. Crush the grains and concentrates.

III. Feeding of Milch Animals : 

III. Feeding of Milch Animals The oil cakes should be flaky and crumbly.  Moisten the concentrate mixture before feeding. Provide adequate vitamins and minerals. Provide salt licks besides addition of mineral mixture to the concentrate ration.  Provide adequate and clean water. Give adequate exercise to the animals. Buffaloes should be taken for wallowing daily. In case this is not possible sprinkle sufficient water more particularly during summer months.  To estimate the daily feed requirement remember that the animals consume about 2.5 to 3.0 percent of their body weight on dry matter basis.

Feeding Schedules for Dairy Animals (Quantity in Kgs.) : 

Feeding Schedules for Dairy Animals (Quantity in Kgs.)

IV. Milking of Animals : 

IV. Milking of Animals Milk the animals two to three times a day. Milk at fixed times. Milk in one sitting within eight minutes. As far as possible, milking should be done by the same person regularly. Milk the animal in a clean place.

IV. Milking of Animals : 

IV. Milking of Animals Wash the udder and teat with antiseptic lotions/luke-warm water and dry before milking.  Milker should be free from any contagious diseases and should wash his hands with antiseptic lotion before each milking.   Milking should be done with full hands, quickly and completely followed by stripping.  Sick cows/buffaloes should be milked at the end to prevent spread of infection.

V. Protection against Diseases : 

V. Protection against Diseases Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour. Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected. Protect the animals against common diseases. In case of outbreak of contagious disease, immediately segregate the sick, in-contact and the healthy animals and take necessary disease control measures.

V. Protection against Diseases : 

V. Protection against Diseases Conduct periodic tests for Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Johne's disease, Mastitis etc. Deworm the animals regularly.  Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs. Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.

Vaccination schedule for dairy cattle : 

Vaccination schedule for dairy cattle

VI. Breeding Care : 

VI. Breeding Care Observe the animal closely and keep specific record of its coming in heat, duration of heat, insemination, conception and calving.   Breed the animals in time.   The onset of oestrus will be within 60 to 80 days after calving. Timely breeding will help achieving conception within 2 to 3 months of calving. Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).   Use high quality semen preferably frozen semen of proven sires/bulls.

VII. Care during Pregnancy : 

VII. Care during Pregnancy Give special attention to pregnant cows two months before calving by providing adequate space, feed, water etc.

VIII. Care of Calves : 

VIII. Care of Calves Take care of new born calf. Treat/disinfect the navel cord with tincutre of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife. Feed colostrum to calf. Assist the calf to suckle if it is too weak to suckle on its own within 30 minutes of calving. In case it is desired to wean the calf immediately after birth, then feed the colostrum in bucket. Keep the calf separately from birth till two months of age in a dry clean and well ventilated place.

Care of Calves : 

Care of Calves Protect the calves against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months. Group the calves according to their size. Vaccinate calves. Dehorn the calves around 4 to 5 days of age for easy management when they grow. Dispose of extra calves not to be reared/maintained for any specific purpose as early as possible, particularly the male calves. The female calves should be properly reared.

Milking machine : 

Milking machine

IX. Marketing of Milk : 

IX. Marketing of Milk Marketing of milk immediately after it is drawn keeping the time between production and marketing of the milk to the minimum. Use clean utensils and handle milk in hygienic way. Wash milk pails/cans/utensils thoroughly with detergent and finally rinse with chloride solution. Avoid too much agitation of milk during transit. Transport the milk during cool hours of the day.

Dairy Schemes for Farmers : 

Dairy Schemes for Farmers

1. Vishsh Pashu Prajnan Karyakrm : 

1. Vishsh Pashu Prajnan Karyakrm Since 1975-76 Beneficiaries- marginal, small farmers, landless Agri. Labours (all caste) having self crossbreed female calf Unit cost- Rs. 8100 Animal feed- 17 Q (@ 4.50/Kg) -7650/ Medicine - 175/ Insurance premium (for 3 yrs.) – 284/ Maximum Subsidy- General - 3000/ SC/ ST - 5000/

2.Graamin Sammunnat Pashu Prajnan Yojna : 

2.Graamin Sammunnat Pashu Prajnan Yojna Since 1999-2000 Supply of breedable Murrah buffalo bulls to Developing farmer/ Gosewak (all caste) Objective- Breed improvement Unit cost- Rs. 14000/ (Including tansportation & Insurance ) Subsidy- General - 75% SC/ ST - 80%

3.Nandi Shala Yojna : 

3.Nandi Shala Yojna Since 2006 Supply of breedable Indigenous good breed cow bulls to Developing farmer at village level (to Gen. ST. Spl. Components having 5 cattle+ land or 20 animals + landless) Objective- Breed improvement of Indigenous N/D cattle Unit Cost- 14000/ Cost of bull-Rs. 12500/ (Including tansportation & Insurance ) Feed cost (for 60 days)- 1500/ Subsidy- 80%

4.Supply of 3/5 Cross breed cow unit on bank loan & subsidy : 

4.Supply of 3/5 Cross breed cow unit on bank loan & subsidy Objective- Beneficiaries- All caste, having experience in dairying , Cluster based, priority to milk routes Subsidy- General - 7,500/ SC/ ST - 10,000/ Margin money- 10%

5.Supply of 3/5 Graded murrah buffalo unit on bank loan & subsidy : 

5.Supply of 3/5 Graded murrah buffalo unit on bank loan & subsidy Beneficiaries- All caste, having experience in dairying , Cluster based, priority to milk routes Subsidy- General - 7,500/ SC/ ST - 10,000/ Margin money- 10%

6. A.I. Training for self employment : 

6. A.I. Training for self employment Objective- to generate self employment Extending AI services Beneficiaries- Gen., ST., Spl. Components Unit cost- 22,000/ per trainee Subsidy – in form of 4,000- Stipend 18,000- Equipments

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