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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Presented By: Samir Muduli ORISSA VETERINARY COLLEGE BHUBANESWAR PSEUDOPREGNANCY IN BITCHES What’s pseudo pregnancy : What’s pseudo pregnancy Display of maternal behaviour together with physical signs of pregnancy following estrus in a non-pregnant bitch which may or may not have been mated. Syn - False Pregnancy Phantom Pregnancy Pseudocyesis Pseudogenetra Nervous lactation TYPES OF PSEUDOPREGNANCY : TYPES OF PSEUDOPREGNANCY COVERT PSEUDOPREGNANCY : COVERT PSEUDOPREGNANCY Covert pseudo pregnancy", i.e., the "physiological, pseudo pregnancy" that occurs in every non-pregnant ovarian cycle in bitches In fact, there is considerable mammary development associated with the luteal phase of every ovarian cycle in dogs. And, therefore, the luteal phase of the normal bitch has been termed a physiological or covert pseudo pregnancy. Further, it has been suggested that the clinical condition of overt pseudo pregnancy actually represents the extreme of the physiological changes that normally occur during diestrus OVERT PSEUDOPREGNANCY : OVERT PSEUDOPREGNANCY When the changes result in extreme behavior or atypical mammary activity, or are presented as clinical problems involving changes similar to those seen in late pregnancy or the early post-partum period, the condition can best be termed "clinical pseudo pregnancy " or "overt pseudo pregnancy" WHY PSEUDO PREGNANCY OCCURS ? : WHY PSEUDO PREGNANCY OCCURS ? During estrus, the surge in LH that results in ovulation also stimulates the ruptured follicles, from which the ova are released, to secrete progesterone. At this point the follicular cells become the corpus luteum. If the bitch becomes pregnant, the corpus luteum is preserved and continues to produce progesterone, which is required to maintain the pregnancy. If the bitch is not bred or mating is unsuccessful, a hormone produced by the uterus called prostaglandin F2a will cause the corpus luteum to regress, progesterone levels will decrease, and diestrus will follow estrus. In bitches that experience pseudo pregnancy, the corpus luteum does not regress despite the fact that conception has not taken place. As a result, increased progesterone levels are maintained bringing about the signs consistent with pregnancy. Around day 60, progesterone levels will abruptly drop as is observed at the end of gestation in pregnant bitches. This drop in progesterone results in elevation of the hormone prolactin, which is responsible for the typical nesting-behavior in pregnant bitches. As such, the pseudo pregnant bitch will display the same behavior as a bitch that is actually pregnant. ETIOLOGY : ETIOLOGY 1. Idiopathic occurrence of a more extensive increase in prolactin than occurs in normal diestrus. 2. Idiopathic increase in sensitivity to the endocrine changes that normally occur in late diestrus, including the normal progressive decline in progesterone and modest elevation in prolactin. 3. Pseudo-luteal phase induced by administration of exogenous progestins 4. Progesterone withdrawal caused by: a. ovariectomy during diestrus, b. termination of long-term or short-term progestin therapy c. idiopathic or prostaglandin-induced abrupt luteolysis d. antiprogestin therapy 5. Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia potentially associated with pituitary microadenomas. 6. Physchogenic or reflexive hyper-prolactinemia occurring in response to stimulation by surrogate neonates or other visual, physical or social stimulation. SIGNS OF PSEUDO PREGNANCY : SIGNS OF PSEUDO PREGNANCY The signs of pseudo pregnancy include Physical signs Mammary development Lactation Psychological signs Nesting Mothering Adopting inanimate objects OTHER SIGNS : OTHER SIGNS Common Signs Prepartum-like and maternal-like behaviors Nesting, digging. over-affection, over-protectiveness, over- defensiveness, aggression, licking, mothering of inanimate objects Mammary enlargement and distension Lactation and milk release Weight gain Anorexia Slide 12: Less Common Signs Emesis Abdominal enlargement Abdominal contractions Diarrhea Polyuria Polydipsia Polyphagia PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The cause is the rapid decline in progesterone at the end of a normal diestrus, coupled with a rise in prolactin (prolactin has been shown to be greater in overtly pseudo pregnant bitches than normal nonpregnant bitches). Other events that exacerbate the signs are self nursing by the bitch and milking the glands out. Iatrogenic pseudogenetra can be caused by ovariohysterectomy in diestrus. This results in a similar progesterone decline as seen in the naturally occurring condition. Progesterone supplementation during a pseudogenetra will temporarily stop the signs, but the removal of the progesterone will result in a recrudescence of the signs. Treatment : Treatment In mild cases vet does not do anything and will subside on its own by 14-21 days. In cases of physical illness and any behavioral changes use of hormonal drugs is preferred to reduce the milk production. Inhibition of prolactin release by administration of an ergot derivative such as bromocriptine, cabergoline or metergoline has proven to be highly effective for the treatment of canine pseudo pregnancy Slide 15: The treatments is 30 micrograms/kg bromocriptin for 16 days and 10 micrograms/kg bromocriptin for 10 days However it has a side effect of vomiting which can be subsided by metoclopramide. Treatment is better if supplemented with MOBILERONE MIBOLERONE : MIBOLERONE Mibolerone is an androgen and has been shown to improve 100% of the physical and 90% psychological signs when administered at 0.016mg/kg for 5 days. It 'cured' 47% of the physical and 77% of the psychological signs. BROMOCRIPTINE : BROMOCRIPTINE Bromocriptine (Parlodel) is a dopamine agonist, so it will result in more dopamine ,less prolactin, and less lactation. The dose is 20 ug/kg for 8-10 days. Side effects include vomiting, but this is apparently not as severe as some of the earlier reports indicated CABERGOLINE : CABERGOLINE Cabergoline (Dostinex) is also a dopamine agonist. It has fewer side effects than bromocriptine. The dose is 5 ug/kg SID for 5-10 days OTHER TREATMENTS : OTHER TREATMENTS Metergoline is a serotonin inhibitor and also inhibits prolactin. The dose is 2 mg BID for 10 days Estrogen and testosterone have been recommended by some sources, but they are not advisable to use. PREVENTION : PREVENTION If bitch is not to be used for breeding ovariohysteroctomy (spaying or neutering) should be considered If neutering is carried out while bitch is showing signs of pseudo pregnancy or when receiving hormonal treatments the signs will persist for several weeks despite she has been neutered. REFERENCE : REFERENCE http://www.ivis.org/advances/concannon/gobello/ivis Pdavo@labbies.com THANK YOU : THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.