Drug dosage forms

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Presentation Transcript

Drug Dosage Forms : 

Drug Dosage Forms Guided by: Dr V M Motghare, Prof & Head. Dept. of Pharmacology Dr Rushikesh P. Deshpande JR-I S R T R Medical College, Ambajogai. drrushikesh@gmail.com 1 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Why so many Dosage Forms? : 

Why so many Dosage Forms? 2 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

` : 

` 3 Film coated tablet Hard gelatin capsule Injections Suspension Syrup Various Iron Preparations Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Drug Dosage Forms: : 

Drug Dosage Forms: “ Dose form is defined as products designed for suitable administration of a drug to a patient for diagnosis , prevention and treatment of a disease or relief of symptoms.” 4 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Need Of Various Dosage Forms : 

Need Of Various Dosage Forms For the protection of a drug from destructive influence of atmospheric oxygen or moisture. E.g. coated tablets, ampoules. For protection of drug from destruction by gastric juices on oral administration. E.g. enteric coated tablets. To mask the bitter taste or foul odor of the drug. E.g. capsules, syrup. To provide extended drug action through controlled release mechanism. E.g. retards, spansules. To provide optimal drug action of topical application. E.g. ointments, cream. 5 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Need Of Various Dosage Forms contd… : 

Need Of Various Dosage Forms contd… To provide drug form for insertion into the body like rectum, vagina, ureter. E.g. suppository, pessary. To provide liquid preparation of substances which is insoluble and instable. E.g. suspension. To provide for placement of drug within the body tissue. E.g. injections. To provide for liquid dosage form of soluble substance in desired vehicles. E.g. solution. To provide drug action for inhalational route. E.g. aerosols. 6 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Drug forms for external use : 

Drug forms for external use Different preparations are available such as solid preparation, semisolid and liquid preparations. E.g. 1. Powders 2. Ointments 3. Creams 4. Lotions 5. Liniments 6. Plasters 7. Pessaries 8. Bougies 9. Suppository. 7 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Drug Forms For Internal Use : 

Drug Forms For Internal Use For oral administration: Solid : TABLETS CAPSULES POWDER GRANULES Liquid : SOLUTION MIXTURE SUSPENSION EMULSION 8 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Drug Dosage Forms: : 

Drug Dosage Forms: The extent and rate to which a medication is absorbed and distributed can be affected by the drug delivery (dosage) form. The chemical structure of a medication will determine its available dosage forms. Drugs may be available in multiple dosage forms—choosing a form that is best received by the patient will lead to a better total outcome. 9 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Solid Dosage Forms : 

Solid Dosage Forms Tablets Capsule Powder Granule Suppository. 10 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Tablet : 

Tablet “ Tablet is a dosage form in which a solid drug powder is compressed in a discoid shape with the help of machine and using a suitable adjuvant.” “Tablets are pulvenarized remedial agents compressed into tablet form by means of a specially designed machinery.” Most frequently used dosage form. 11 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Composition of tablets: : 

Composition of tablets: Diluent. Binder. Disintegrant. Lubricant. Coloring agent. Sweetening & Flavoring agent. 12 Various shapes of tablets Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 13: 

Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 13 Matrix tablet 3 Layer Tablet Matrix tablet

Types Of Tablets : : 

Types Of Tablets : 14 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Uncoated Tablet : 

Uncoated Tablet 15 Chewable tablets- Used for children, E.g. vitamin and antacids tablets Effervescent tablets- Contains acid substances & carbonate/hydrogen carbonate, which reacts with water to release CO2 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Uncoated tablets cntd… : 

Uncoated tablets cntd… Lozenges / Troches- These are flat, hard, sugary mass containing an active ingredient. Intended to produce continuous effect on the mucous membrane of the throat. Slow dissolution rate by virtue of ↑ed binding agents. Pastilles : similar to lozenges, but are softer, made of glycerol, gelatin or acacia and sugar. 16 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Soluble tablets- : 

Soluble tablets- Dissolves completely in liquid to produce solution of definite concentration. E.g. mouth wash, gargle, skin lotion, aspirin etc. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 17

Uncoated tablets cntd… : 

Uncoated tablets cntd… Sublingual tablets- Placed below tongue for slow release of tablet for absorption through the mucosal tissue. Used for drugs destroyed/inactivated within the g.i.t. Very fast onset of action. E.g. nitroglycerin. 18 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Coated tablets : 

Coated tablets Enetric coated tablets- Used for drugs which are destroyed by gastric juice or which causes irritation to the stomach. Coating made of Cellulose acetate phathalate. (insoluble in gastric acid but readily dissolves in intestinal contents.) Expensive 19 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 20: 

Sugar coated tablet- Used for tablets containing active ingredient(s) of unpleasant taste. It is covered with sugar to make it more palatable. 20 Coated tablets contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Coated tablets contd… : 

Coated tablets contd… Film coated tablets- The tablet is covered with a thin layer or film of polymeric substance. It protects the drug from atmospheric conditions. Mask the objectionable taste and odor of the drug. 21 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 22: 

Implant- The tablet is inserted under the skin through a small surgical cut. The drug used should be water insoluble. Slow and continuous release of drug over prolonged period of time ranging from 3 to 6 months. 22 Coated tablets contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 23: 

Modified release tablet- Either coated or uncoated. The additives modify the rate of release of the drug into the g.i.t. E.g Indomethacin Advantages: Prolongs the effect of drug, Reduces the frequency of administration. 23 Coated tablets contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Graphical Comparison Of Blood ConcentrationV/S Time : 

Graphical Comparison Of Blood ConcentrationV/S Time 24 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Capsule : 

Capsule “They are the solid dosage forms in which drug in the powder form or granule is put in the capsule which is made up of gelatin. Types of capsules: Hard capsules. Soft capsules. Modified release capsule. Purpose of using capsule :- By-passes disintegration Provides stability of drug Avoid unwanted taste. 25 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Capsule contd… : 

Capsule contd… Hard capsules- Most common form of capsules. Made up of cylindrical body and cap. Drug is used in powder or granule form Sizes: 000,00,0,1,2,3,4,5 (smallest) Made from gelatin + sugar Soft capsules- One piece capsule containing liquid. Made up of gelatin + glycerine. E.g. Vit A capsule. Vit E capsule. 26 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 27: 

Modified release capsule- The drug in the granule form is coated with substances which enables it to dissolve at different times There is continuous release of drug ; the period of release being 2-12 hrs. It contains more amount of active ingredient than the conventional one. Decreases the frequency of administration. E.g. indomethacin, ketoprofen. Advantages: Improves compliance. Reduces git adverse effects. 27 Capsule contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 28: 

Composition of capsule- Active ingredient Diluent: lactose, to fill the capsule & rapid dispersal of the drug into g.i.t. Lubricant: Magnesium stearate , used to ensure flow of powder during filling into the capsule. Disintegrent: starch Preservative : to prevent growth of fungi. methyl & propyl parabens, sorbic acid 28 Capsule contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Spansules : 

Spansules Obtained by charging a capsule with drug pellets of varying coating and size. The smallest disintegrating first and largest last. They afford a long lasting therapeutic effect with a single oral dose. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 29

Pellets : 

Pellets These are small rod shaped or ovoid sterile dosage forms composed essentially of pure hormones in compressed forms. Intended for subcutaneous implantation in body tissue  slow release of drugs. E.g. testosterone pellets. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 30

Pills : 

Pills “ Pills are small, ovoid, solid bodies made from plastic mass of drugs with aid of some adhesive or sticky materials called excipients” Now a days reserved only for contraceptive pills. 31 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Powder : 

Powder “Powder is a solid dosage form which contains one or more ingredient in dry and finely divided state.” The powder form are available for external and internal uses. Advantages: Flexibility in compounding. good chemical stability. Specific dose can be calculated. Smaller particles size powder dissolves more rapidly. Larger quantities can be dispensed. More easy to carry than liquids. Economical Ease in children and old persons. 32 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 33: 

Disadvantages: Not suitable for unpleasant drugs. Deliquesant and hygroscopic drugs can not be dispensed. E.g. menthol, camphor, thymol, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide. Volatile drugs are not suitable. Uses: Lubricant Absorbants Antiseptics Antipruritics. 33 Powder contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 34: 

Classification of powder: Simple powder : - only one ingredient either in crystalline or amorphous form. Compound powder: 2 or more ingredients Granular effervescent powder – for internal use. Bulk powder – external use, dusting powder, tooth powder. Powders inclosed in catchets and capsules. Compressed powders (tablets) and tablet tritutrates. 34 Powder contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 35: 

Powder for internal use : Oral route- Bulk powder : contains non potent ingredient e.g. magnesium trisilicate. Divided powder: Intended to be dissolved in water before administration. E.g. laxatives and antacid powders. Slitz powder - sodium bicarbonate - sodium potassium tartarate (Rochelle salt) - tartaric acid 35 Powder contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 36: 

Powder For Injection: Sterile solid substance to be dissolved or suspended by adding sterile fluid. Powder For Inhalation: Powder is supplied in hard capsules and inhaled from rotahaler. E.g. disodium chromoglycate. Mainly used for drug delivery into respiratory tract. 36 Powder contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Granule : 

Granule Small irregular particles from 0.5-2 mm in diameter. It can be placed on the tongue and swallowed with the water, some are intended to be dissolved in water before taking. Effervescent granules evolve carbon dioxide when added to the water. 37 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Suppository : 

Suppository Solid medicated preparation designed for insertion into the rectum. Weight: 1-4 g Suppository bases: cocoa butter, glycerinated gelatin, polyethylene glycol, sodium stearate. Bases are non toxic, non irritant to mucous membrane and melt quickly at body temperature. 38 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 39: 

These can be used systemic or local purpose. Local use: treatment of hemorrhoids. Systemic use: analgesics, aminophylline sedatives 39 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Pessary : 

Pessary Solid medicated preparation designed for insertion into the vagina. Types : Molded Compressed (vaginal tablet) Vaginal capsule 40 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Plasters : 

Plasters “These are the solid dosage forms which is in the form of powders with a suitable adjuvant which is used for application to the affected part with an intension to have prolonged contact.” These are the tenacious insoluble compounds, pliable in consistency intended for application to limited areas of body. 41 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Lamellae : 

Lamellae These are thin gelatin discs softened with glycerin and impregnated with substances acting on the pupil. These are intended to be placed under the eyelid. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 42

Semisolid Dosage Forms : 

Semisolid Dosage Forms Ointment- “Ointment is a semisolid preparation for external application for their emolient, soothing or sometimes systemic action containing active ingredients in a suitable base and it is to be applied with or without rubbing.” Used for external application on skin and mucous membrane. E.g. Petroleum jelly. 43 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 44: 

Types of ointments : Degree of penetration: Epidermic ointment – no penetration of skin. - emolient or protective properties. Endodermic ointment- - penetration into the skin. Didermic ointment- - absorbed systemically. 44 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 45: 

Paste Preparation containing high proportion of finely powdered solids like zinc oxide, starch. Less occlusive than ointment. Used to protect sub acute or excoriated skin. 45 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 46: 

Cream- “Creams are semisolid preparations for external applications without rubbing, they contain active ingredient in water soluble base and sometimes oily bases are used.” Miscible with the skin secretion. Cosmetically more acceptable than ointment as less greasy and easier to apply. Types : 1. Oil-in-Water ( aqueous cream) E.g vanishing cream 2. Water-in-Oil (oily cream) E.g. cold cream 46 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Poultices (Cataplasms) : 

Poultices (Cataplasms) “These are soft, semisolid, external applications which either stimulate a body surface or alleviate an inflamed area by supplying medicated substances in the presence of heat and moisture.” They are one of the oldest of recorded pharmaceutical preparations. Poultices tend to draw infections materials from diseased tissue because of absorptive and hygroscopic character of the ingredients used e.g. kaolin and glycerine. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 47

Liposomes : 

Liposomes LIPOSOMES= meaning lipid body. minute vesicles produced by sonication of an aqueous suspension of phospholipids. These are spherical microscopic vesicles composed of one or more concentric lipid bilayers. Size= 25 nm to 10000nm. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 48

Niosomes : 

Niosomes These are non-ionic surfactant vesicles, inexpensive alternative to liposomes. Bilayered structures which can entrap both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs either in an aqueous layer or in vesicular membrane, made up of lipids. Advantages over liposomes: Low cost Greater chemical stability Low toxicity Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 49

Liquid Dosage Forms : 

Liquid Dosage Forms Solution Suspension Emulsion 50 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Mixture : 

Mixture “Mixture is liquid medicament meant for internal use containing one or more ingredients either in dissolved, suspended and emulsified state.” Bottles are used when more than one dose of drug is to be dispensed. Haustus or Draught are used when only one dose is to be dispensed, with the exception of Ipecacuanha emetic draught in which several doses are prescribed in multiple dose container. 51 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 52: 

52 Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms Internal External Mixture Syrup Elixir Linctus Application on skin Used in mouth Instilled into body cavities Liniment Lotion Gargles Mouth wash Throat paint Douche Nasal spray Nasal drop Ear drop

Advantages Of Mixtures : 

Advantages Of Mixtures Quickly effective; as stages of disintegration and dissolution are not required. Can be given in larger doses; e.g. castor oil, liq. Parafffin oil. Irritant powders like potassium iodide and bromide can be given in mixture. Types of mixtures: SOLUTION SUSPENSION EMULSION 53 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Solution : 

Solution “ Solution is a perfectly homogenous liquid preparation containing one or more substances dissolved in fluid medium.” Aqueous solution for external use, Nasal solution ; e.g ephedrine nasal drops Otic solution; glycerine and corticosteroids Eye drops; e.g. ofloxacin eye drops Aqueous solution for intravenous infusion is, Free from pyrogens Isotonic with blood. 54 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Douche : 

Douche “ A Douche is a aqueous solution meant for introduction into one of the body cavities either for medicinal treatment or for hygienic purpose.” Most commonly used for vaginal solutions. Also called irrigations. Also used to irrigate the eyes, ear or nasal cavities for cleaning or removing the foreign particles. Cleansing douche includes water, sodium chloride(0.2% isotonic), boric acid 2% etc. Medicated douche includes mercuric chloride 1:3000 to 1:10000, silver nitrate 1:1000,potassium permanganate 1:4000. 55 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Suspension : 

Suspension “ Suspension is a liquid medicament containing insoluble solids which are uniformly distributed through out the body of vehicle with or without the help of suspending agents.” Insoluble solids may be diffusible or non diffusible. Diffusible substances form suspension by simple agitation e.g. mist alba ( milk of magnesia) Non diffusible substances require use of suspending agents.e.g. kaolin mixture, calomel More stable than solution. Ideal for pts with difficulty in swallowing tab/cap. 56 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Suspension contd… : 

Suspension contd… In an ideal suspension, the particles should not aggregate and should remain uniformly distributed throughout the dispersion. E.g. antacids, co-trimoxazole and benzoyl metronidazole. Suspending agents: Pharmacologically inert substances which help insoluble and in diffusible substances to stay in uniform distribution through out the body of vehicle, so as to ensure uniform distribution of ingredients in each dose. They increase the viscosity of the vehicle so that they do not allow the solid particle to settle down early. 57 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 58: 

E.g. gums- Tragacath’s acacia : heavy powders like bismuth, chalk sprups- starch mucilage glycerine light powders like kaolin, light Magnesium honey carbonate Bentonite Methyl cellulose Sodium alginate 58 Suspension contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Emulsion : 

Emulsion “An emulsion may be defined as a system of two immiscible liquid phases, one of which is reduced to a fine state of subdivisions (fine globules) and uniformly distributed through out the other by means of third inert agent called emulsifying agent.” The system is stabilized by the presence of an emulsifying agent e.g. a) Natural : gum, acacia, soap, egg yolk. b) Synthetic: Cationic : cetrimide, Anionic : potassium stearate. It reduces the interfacial tension between the two phases. The particle diameter of the dispersed phase extends from 0.1 to 100 μm. 59 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Emulsion contd… : 

Emulsion contd… Phases of emulsion : There are three phases- Dispersed phase (internal phase) The liquid that is broken into fine globules. Continuous phase (external phase/ dispersion medium) The liquid that surrounds the globules of liquid in dispersed phase. Intermediate or inter-phase . Formed by emulsifying agent. 60 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Emulsion contd… : 

Emulsion contd… Types : Oil-in-water (o/w): When the oil phase is dispersed as globules throughout an aqueous phase. E.g. benzyl benzoate lotion. Preferred for internal use , e.g. cod liver oil, castor oil. 61 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 62: 

Water-in-oil (w/o) When an oil phase serves as the emulsion phase. Exclusively for external use. The emulsion containing fats, carbohydrates and vitamins in sterile condition can be used as total parenteral nutrition. 62 Emulsion contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 63: 

Oil in water Water in oil Appearance : Milky white Free dilution by water is possible ( external phase). Methylene blue imparts uniform blue colour. Conducts electricity. Both for internal and external use. Uniform fluorescence e.g. castor oil turpentine oil Natural : milk, egg yolk, butter, latex. Appearance : waxy and translucent. Free dilution by oil. Sudan III imparts uniform red colour. Do not conduct electricity. Only for external use. Spotty fluorescence 63 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Tests For Identification Of Type Of Emulsion : 

Tests For Identification Of Type Of Emulsion 64 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Lotion Liniment : 

Lotion Liniment “It is a liquid medicament either solution, suspension or emulsion containing an active ingredient.” Prepared in aqueous or watery base. Applied without rubbing. Acts as soothing agent and antiseptic. Do not contain camphor E.g. Potassium permangnate (solution) Calamine lotion.(suspension) Benzyl benzoate (Emulsion) “It is liquid medicament either in a solution or emulsion containing an active ingredient.” Prepared in oily base. Applied with rubbing. Acts as antiseptic, counter-irritant. May contain camphor. E.g. Camphorated NH3 (solution) Terpentine liniment (Emulsion) 65 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Syrups : 

Syrups “ Syrups are the sweet, viscous, concentrated aqueous solutions of sucrose or other sugars in water or any other suitable aqueous vehicle.” They are the concentrated solutions (66.7% w/w) of sucrose in water. Uses: As demulcents in cough. As preservative. 66 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Elixirs : 

Elixirs “Elixirs are clear, pleasantly flavoured, sweetened hydroalcoholic liquid preparations for oral administrations.” They are hydroalcoholic solutions of medicinal substances, sweetened and flavoured. The main ingredients of elixir are ethanol and water. E.g paracetamol elixir. 67 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Linctuses : 

Linctuses “ Linctuses are sweet, viscous liquid preparations usually containing medicinal substances which have demulcent, sedative or expectorant properties.” Used for treatment of cough. They produce soothening effect on throat. Addition of glycerin has a demulscent effect on mucus membrane of throat. e.g. codeine linctus, noscapine linctus. 68 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 69: 

Paints : “These are coloured liquid preparation meant for local application on skin or mucus membrane with the help of brush.” E.g. throat paint. Sprays : “ throat sprays are the liquid preparations which are sprayed into the mouth for their laryngitis, pharyngitis and tonsillitis action.” 69 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Tincture : 

Tincture “ They are the alcoholic or hydroalcoholic extracts of vegetable drugs. e.g. tincture belladona tincture opii. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 70

Slide 71: 

Gargles : “ Gargles are aqueous solutions used fot the treatment of an infection of the throat.” Usually concentrated and must be diluted in water before use. E.g. potassium chlorate gargles. Mouth washes : “ A mouth wash is a aqueous solution with a pleasant taste and odour used for rinsing, deodarant , refreshing or antiseptic action.” 71 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Enema : 

Enema “Administration of liquid medicament into the rectum is called as enema.” Types of enema : Evacuant enema. E.g. soap water enema, used before surgical procedure Water stimulates the rectum by distention, while soap acts as a lubricant. Retention enema. The drug incorporated inside, acts locally, E.g. Chiniform enema in amoebic colitis. Or it may act sytemically e.g. Paraldehyde enema. ( used in status epilepticus in children) 72 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Gaseous Dosage Forms : 

Gaseous Dosage Forms Aerosol Gas Volatile Liquid 73 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Aerosol : 

Aerosol “The active ingredient when packaged in pressurized dispenser is known as aerosol.” The container is so designed that, by depressing valve, some of the contents are expelled due to pressure inside the container. Propellants used:- fluorinated hydrocarbons, nitrogen and CO2 . The large expansion of the propellant at room temperature and atmospheric pressure produces a dispersion of the drug in air. 74 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Aerosol contd… : 

Aerosol contd… Types : Surface spray. It produces droplets of 100 μm or more. Used to relieve muscle ache, irritation of bites and stings, as surface disinfectants or as wound or burn dressing. Spray on dusting powder. Foam dispenser. Used to for some spermicidal preparations. Metered dose aerosol. Used for delivery of glycerol trinitrate in droplet form to the buccal mucosa. 75 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 76: 

Advantages : Regulation of the dosage by the use of metered valve. Minimum irritation. Antiseptic materials can be sprayed onto the abraded skin. Administration of the drug in the formulation via respiratory tract increases the efficiency of the drug. 76 Aerosol contd… Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Slide 77: 

77 Rotahaler Metered dose inhaler Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Gas : 

Gas Only a few gases such as oxygen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide are used in clinical practices. 78 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Volatile liquids : 

Volatile liquids Used during induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. e.g. Halothane Ether Chloroform 79 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Packaging : 

Packaging Bottle Vial Ampoule Strip-packaging Blister packaging Tube Cylinder Spray 80 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Packaging : 

Packaging Packaging is an integral part of formulation of drug. It protects the active ingredients from light, moisture, and damage due to handling and transportation. These are made up of glass, plastic, metal or paper. 81 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Bottle : 

Bottle Used as a multidose or single dose container for tablet, capsule, powder, solution and suspension. Made up of glass or plastic. Prescription bottles: Dispensing liquid of low viscosity. Wide mouth bottles: Used for bulk powder, large quantities of tab/cap. Dropper bottle: Ophthalmic, aural, nasal preparations. Application bottle: applying medication to a wound or skin surface. 82 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Vial : 

Vial 83 Vial is a small glass container with a non removable rubber top. Volume should not exceed more than 30 ml in order to minimize the risk of contamination. Sterile diluent is used to dissolve the powdered form of drug. Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Ampoule : 

Ampoule Ampoule is a small, thin walled, sealed glass container holding a single dose of a drug. Sealed by rotating the neck of the ampoule in Bunson flame, melting the glass, fusing at the top of opening. 84 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Leak Test: : 

Leak Test: Performed on ampoules. 1 % methylene blue used. The ampoules are dipped in the drug solution and negative pressure is applied. As a result, the drug will enter in the improperly sealed containers and will impart the colour of the dye to the container. 85 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Strip Packaging : 

Strip Packaging 86 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Collapsible Tube : 

Collapsible Tube 87 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Routes Of Administrations : 

Routes Of Administrations Oral Parenteral Topical Miscellaneous 88 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Oral : 

Oral 89 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Parenteral : 

Parenteral 90 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Trans-dermal applications : 

Trans-dermal applications E.g testesterone. Hyoscine Scopolamine 91 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Ophthalmic applications : 

Ophthalmic applications 92 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Corneal Shield : 

Corneal Shield Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 93

Otic applications : 

Otic applications 94 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Inhalational Route : 

Inhalational Route 95 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Implants : 

Implants 96 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Mucoadhesive Microcapsule : 

Mucoadhesive Microcapsule Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 97

Contributors : 

Contributors Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare 98

References : 

References General principles of Pharmacology, by Mir Misabuddin. 4th edition. Study notes by Dr V M Motghare, Prof & Head, Dept Of Pharmacology. R N Mehta. Various internet sites. 99 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

Thank you! : 

Thank you! “GOD, I hate needles!” 100 Dr Rushikesh Deshpande, Dr V M Motghare

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