pinworm & whipworm

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WHIPWORM & PINWORM:

Dr.Riyaz Sheriff WHIPWORM & PINWORM NEMATODES

COMMON TERMS IN PARASITOLOGY:

COMMON TERMS IN PARASITOLOGY Cuticle – outer hyaline noncellular layer Cervical alae – Wing like expansion of the cuticle near the mouth Cervical Papillae – protruberance of cuticle near oesophagus Buccal Capsule – oral aperture leading to mouth cavity containing teeth or cutting organs Cloaca – common passage in male nematodes – Rectum & Genital tract open

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Filariform Larvae – oesophagus is long compared to the length of larva & posterior end is not dilated. Rhabdatiform Larva –Short Oesophagus compared to length of larva & posterior end is dilated like a bulb Gubernaculum – an elevation on the dorsal wall of cloaca which guides spicule during copulation Spicule – accessory copulatory organ which is rod like & protrusible Copulatory Bursa – umbrella like expansion of the cuticle sorrounding the cloaca . Supported by fleshy rays comparable with ribs of umbrella

NEMATODES – GENERAL FEATURES:

NEMATODES – GENERAL FEATURES Worm like helminths Length varies from 1 mm to 1 metre Smallest – Trichinella Spiralis Longest – Dracunculus Medinensis Body is covered by thick cuticle which may be smoothed, striated, bossed or spiny Body cavity is a pseudocele – organs suspended inside the cavity Have simple Nervous & Digestive systems Sexes are separate Male – single tubule differentiated into testis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle & ejaculatory duct

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Female – has ovary, oviduct, seminal receptacle , uterus and vagina All Nematodes have single host except Filarioidea Dracunculoidea Nematodes may produce Eggs – oviparous Larvae – viviparous Eggs with larvae – oviviviparous Life cycle consists of typically 4 larval stages & adult form

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WHIPWORM / TRICHURIS TRICHURA TRICHOCEPHALUS

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LINNEAEUS IN 1771 MORE COMMON IN TROPICS TRICHURIS – HAIR LIKE TAIL (MISNOMER) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Nematoda Class: Adenophorea Order: Trichurida Family: Trichuridae Genus: Trichuris Species: T. trichiura

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Thin anterior 3/5 th Thick posterior 2/5th

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Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Nematoda Class: Adenophorea Order: Trichurida Family: Trichuridae Genus: Trichuris Species: T. trichiura LIFE SPAN IS 5-10YEARS FEMALEs ARE LARGER THAN MALE WORMS MALE MEASURES 3-4cms FEMALE MEASURES 4-5cms

MORPHOLOGY :

MORPHOLOGY

LIFE CYCLE:

LIFE CYCLE

EGGS:

EGGS BROWN – BILE STAINED TRIPLE SHELL BARREL SHAPED, 50 μ m LONG 25 μ m WIDE WITH MUCOUSAL PLUG AT BOTH ENDS FLOATS IN SALT SOLUTION

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FEMALE LAYS 5000 EGGS/DAY

CLINICAL IMPORTANCE :

CLINICAL IMPORTANCE ASYMPTOMATIC SYMPTOMS DUE TO MECHANICAL OR ALLERGIC REACTIONS CAN CAUSE ANAEMIA & MALNUTRITION RARELY ACUTE APPENDICITIS CHRONIC DYSENTRY ABDOMINAL PAIN RECTAL PROLAPSE

DIAGNOSIS:

DIAGNOSIS DEMONSTRATION OF EGGS IN STOOLS DIRECT VISUALISATION OF WORMS IN RECTUM LIGHT INFECTION – LESS THAN 10 EGGS PER SMEAR HEAVY INFECTION – MORE THAN 50EGGS PER SMEAR CHARCOT LEYDEN CRYSTALS IN STOOLS

TREATMENT:

TREATMENT ALBENDAZOLE 400MG/DAY x 3DAYS MEBENDAZOLE 100MG BD x 3DAYS IVERMECTIN (200 μ g/kg) ALONG WITH ALBENDAZOLE 400MG LOPERAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE

PREVENTION:

PREVENTION PROPER SANITATION PROPER DISPOSAL OF NIGHT SOIL PREVENTION OF CONSUMPTION OF UNCOOKED VEGETABLES

ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS/ PINWORM/ OXYURIS VERMICULARIS:

ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS/ PINWORM/ OXYURIS VERMICULARIS

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Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Nematoda Class: Secernentea Subclass: Spiruria Order: Oxyurida Family: Oxyuridae Genus: Enterobius Male 2mm – 5 mm length Female 8-13mm length Adults are short , white & fusiform with pointed ends. Mouth is surrounded by 3 cervical alae which are transversely striated. Oesophagus is double bulb structure

MORPHOLOGY:

MORPHOLOGY MALE FEMALE Posterior end is tightly curved with a prominent copulatory spicule Male usually dies after copulation Posterior third has a thin pointed pin like tail Vulva is located in the middle third of the body & opens into single vagina Life span is 2 weeks – 2 months

LIFE CYCLE:

REINFECTION ANUS LIFE CYCLE

EGGS :

EGGS COLOURLESS PLANO CONVEX 50 – 60 μ m IN LENGTH & 30 μ m IN BREADTH TRANSPARENT SHELL HAS TADPOLE LIKE LARVAE OUTER ALBUMINOUS LAYER FLOATS IN SATURATED SALT SOLUTION

CLINICAL FEATURES:

CLINICAL FEATURES COMMON IN CHILDREN AND WOMEN PERIANAL ITCHING NOCTURNAL ENURESIS RARELY CHRONIC SALPHINGITIS APPENDICITIS

DIAGNOSIS:

DIAGNOSIS DEMONSTRATING THE ADULT WORM DEMONSTRATION OF EGGS NIH SWAB SCOTCH TAPE FINGER NAILS

TREATMENT :

TREATMENT TREAT THE WHOLE FAMILY ALBENDAZOLE 400MG PYRANTEL PAMOATE 10mg/kg MEBENDAZOLE 100 MG SINGLE DOSE PREVENTION

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THANK YOU

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