Essential Principles of Safe Food Preparation

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This presentation deals with essential principles of of safe food preparation for infants and children

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Essential Principles of Safe Food Preparation for Infants & Children : 

Essential Principles of Safe Food Preparation for Infants & Children By Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. Public Health & Safety Consultant Trinidad, West Indies

What is Food Safety? : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 2 What is Food Safety? Food safety is the assurance that food when consumed in its usual manner does not pose a threat to human health and well being

Why is Food Safety Important for Infants & Children : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 3 Why is Food Safety Important for Infants & Children Infants and children represent one of the special target groups They are particularly vulnerable to infections and injury because they have incompletely developed immune and organ systems that are incapable of dealing with physical, chemical and microbiological agents

Why is Food Safety Important for Infants & Children (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 4 Why is Food Safety Important for Infants & Children (cont’d) Food if not prepared properly under strict sanitary and hygienic conditions can be a major source of disease causing organisms or infective agents leading to illnesses, undue human suffering and deaths leading to a loss of valuable human potential and increased economic burden that perpetuates the cycle of poverty particularly in developing countries

Why is Food Safety Important for Infants & Children (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 5 Why is Food Safety Important for Infants & Children (cont’d) The World Health Organization estimates that every year 1500 million episodes of diarrhoea occur worldwide in infants and children under the age of five and 3 million die as a result It is imperative that food handlers and parents exercise due diligence i.e. do all in their power to ensure safe food preparation for infants and children

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 6 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases Adopt, implement and follow the 4Cs. Clean and sanitise Cook food thoroughly Cover and separate food Chill and serve food at appropriate temperature. i.e. serve hot foods hot (60 ºC or above) and cold foods cold (0 ºC or below)

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 7 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Food safety begins with clean hands, counter tops, equipment, utensils, personal hygiene and sanitary food preparation environment Competence and knowhow on how to produce safe food Will power to put food safety first on the agenda to ensure health and well being for the family, community, country, nation

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 8 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Food safety begins with clean hands! Wash hands and forearms thoroughly with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, scrubbing the palms, back of hands, between fingers and under nails, rinse thoroughly and dry with an air dryer or disposable single-use paper towel

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 9 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Wash Hands After Coughing or sneezing Leaving any work area Engaging in any work After eating, drinking, smoking Nose and body touching Handling raw unprocessed food such as poultry, beef, pork, eggs, seafood and shellfish After using the bathroom and changing room New tasks other than handling food Disposing of wash water, waste water or mop water Scraping or cleaning food or soil from the equipment

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 10 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Use Safe Water Potable unadulterated water should be used in all food preparations Water should be boiled, cooled and scooped out from a covered container prior to use in food preparations Remember that ice made with unsafe water will also be unsafe and should not be used in food

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 11 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Wash Fruits & Vegetables Thoroughly Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly with potable water It may be advisable to use a safe sanitizer such as chlorine (1 teaspoon to 1 gallon of water). Soak fruits and vegetables for 5-10 seconds and thoroughly rinse before use Do not give fruits and vegetables to infants and children if they are grown in contaminated soil or contain high levels of pesticides and other toxic chemicals

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 12 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Washing, Sterilising Bottles, Utensils & Equipment Sterilise all bottles, cups and utensils before use Sterilizing can be achieved by boiling in water for 5 minutes or by using a sterilizing solution

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 13 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Cook Food Thoroughly Foods such as raw milk, poultry and vegetables should be cooked thoroughly All parts of the food should reach an internal temperature of 70 ºC Check all cooked foods using a food thermometer to ensure complete cooking

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 14 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Avoid Storing Cooked Foods for any long Periods Freshly prepare food for infants and children If food is to be stored, it should be done only for the next meal Keep cool food cool at a temperature of 5 ºC and hot food hot at a temperature of 60 ºC or above Stored food should be re-heated thoroughly at least 70 ºC

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 15 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Avoid Contact Between Raw & Cooked Foods Cover and separate raw from cooked or ready-to-eat foods Wash hands and utensils before, during and after use to minimize cross-contamination Ensure that any new ingredient added to cooked food does not introduce pathogenic organisms If this is the case food needs to be thoroughly cooked again or thrown out

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 16 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Avoid Feeding Infants & Young Children with a Bottle Bottles and teat feeding devices are difficult to clean and sterilize and may harbour disease causing organisms Use clean and boiled cups, spoons, dishes and utensils when feeding infants and young children

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 17 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Protect Foods from Vermins & Other Animals Food preparation areas should be free from vermins and pets Their presence could lead to cross-contamination and pose a serious health hazard for infants and children Pests and pets should not be allowed in the food processing areas or close to infants and children

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 18 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Store Toxic Chemicals In A Safe Place Sanitizers, pesticides and disinfecting solutions should be labelled appropriately and stored separately from food Containers that had toxic chemicals should not be recycled and used as storage containers for infant and children food

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 19 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Keep Food Preparation Surfaces and Premises Meticulously Clean All food surfaces should be cleaned and sanitized before and after food preparation Premises should be constructed in accordance with good manufacturing practices, good building practices and maintained in a good state of repair to minimize cross-contamination and adulteration of food

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 20 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Foods to be Avoided by Infants & Children Uncooked fermented meats, such as salami Unpasteurised milk and milk products such as raw milk, cheese, other dairy foods Raw or undercooked meat, particularly minced meat, poultry, fish and shellfish

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 21 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Food to be Avoided by Infants & Children (cont’d) Raw sprouts such as clover, radish and alfalfa Unpasteurised fruit juices Partially cooked eggs Contaminated fruits and vegetables

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 22 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Infants 4-6 months should be fed breast milk Milk can be expressed and stored in a sterile container with a lid Breast milk can only be safely stored in a fridge for up to 48 h Breast milk can be safely stored in a freezer for up to three months

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 23 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Frozen milk should be thawed in the refrigerator To warm milk gradually by placing the bottle in hot water Avoid over heating the milk as this may affect the immunological properties

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 24 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Any partially consumed milk or food should be discarded If a breast pump is used, all parts of the breast pump should be washed with a mild detergent and left to air-dry Microwave ovens should not be used to warm milk, because milk is not warmed evenly and may appear hotter that what it really is and may destroy the immunological properties

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 25 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Infant Formula Professional advice should be followed before using an infant formula Always follow instructions on the infant formula packaging Powder formula should be prepared fresh each day

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 26 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Infant Formula Infant bottles containing formula should be stored in the fridge and warmed up immediately Any partially consumed milk should be discarded Fresh milk should be made just before for the next feeding

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 27 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Solid Food (commercially prepared) Read and follow instructions on the label of commercially prepared infant food When opening infant food in vacuum-sealed jars listen for a popping sound which indicates the jar’s seal was intact If the jar fails to pop when open, do not use the food

What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 28 What can be done to Prevent Exposure of Infants & Children to Foodborne Diseases (cont’d) Solid Food (Cont’d) Swollen or leaking jars and cans indicate that harmful microorganisms may have grown, and should not be consumed Once open all food should be used or stored in the refrigerator for not more than three days Throw out the contents of any product if it has an unusual odour and colour

Points to Remember when Cooking Food for Infants & Children : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 29 Points to Remember when Cooking Food for Infants & Children Keep hot foods steaming hot Keep cold food refrigerated Cook food to the right internal temperature Separate raw and ready to eat food Keep kitchen and utensils clean Wash hands thoroughly and repeatedly with soap and dry on a clean towel

Points to Remember when Packing Lunches for School or Child Care Center : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 30 Points to Remember when Packing Lunches for School or Child Care Center Ensure food preparation surfaces, hands and utensils are clean when preparing and packing the lunch Wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly Lunches should be kept cool. It may be advisable to pack something frozen such as juice box first and then pack cold meats, chicken or eggs sandwiches between the cold item.

Points to Remember when Packing Lunches for School or Child Care Center (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 31 Points to Remember when Packing Lunches for School or Child Care Center (cont’d) Throw out any leftovers Warn children against sharing drink bottles Warn children against buying poorly cooked food from unsanitary and unhygienic vendors Warn children against buying and consuming beverages contained in reused bottles and cans Warn children against buying food in bottles and cans which have broken seals and over the expiry date

What can Parents Teach their Children about Food Safety? : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 32 What can Parents Teach their Children about Food Safety? Teach children to wash and dry their hands before touching and eating food: After touching chicken or raw meat After using the toilet After blowing their nose After playing with a pet After touching anything dirty

What can Parents Teach their Children about Food Safety? (cont’d) : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 33 What can Parents Teach their Children about Food Safety? (cont’d) Do not eat food from the floor Do not buy food from roadside vendors Do not eat raw or partially cooked foods Do not accept food from strangers Encourage children to ask questions about foods they are not comfortable with or have concerns about food safety

Conclusions : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 34 Conclusions The World Health Organization has reported that up to 70 % of diarrhoeal diseases may be foodborne related and transmitted through food contamination during preparation to infants and children The recommendations outlined in this presentation should provide the basis for the preparation of safe food for one of our most valuable and vulnerable in society-infants and children It is hoped that observance of these basic guidelines will contribute to the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases that if not addressed may lead to malnutrition and possibly death of infants and children

References : 

Dr Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D 35 References Pattron, D. (2005). Food Safety and Children at Carnival Time. Ringgold GA: Ideamarketers Pattron, D. (2004). Food Safety. New York: Scientific Publishers Pattron, D. (2004). Quality Assurance and Food Safety. New York: Scientific Publishers World Health Organization. (1996). Basic Principles for the preparation of safe food for infants and young children. Geneva: WHO