IS Disaster Mitigation Possible? Interplay of humanistic and natural causative factors has narrowed the gap in what can be truly called a natural or man-made disaster Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D.Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. : IS Disaster Mitigation Possible? Interplay of humanistic and natural causative factors has narrowed the gap in what can be truly called a natural or man-made disaster Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D.Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. 1 , Potential Impact of Disasters : Potential Impact of Disasters Loss of lives amounting to million deaths for period 1968 –to present.
Economic and human costs vary widely based on:
Density of the population.
Availability of emergency response capabilities
Accessibility to outside assistance.
Effective and efficient rescue operations.
Strict adherence to building codes, design and construction practices
Stability of soil and geographic location. 2 Types of Disasters : Types of Disasters Climatological
Bhopal, India (1984)
Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986)
Climate Change (Global Warming)
Depletion of Ozone layer 3 Natural Disasters Man-made Disasters Health Effects of Natural Disasters : Health Effects of Natural Disasters 4 Human costs in disasters? : Human costs in disasters? Haiti (2010): 250,000 dead, 50,000 injured, over 200,000 homeless
Mexico City (1985): 9,000 dead, 30,000 injured, 95,000 homeless
NW Iran (1990): 40,000 dead, > 200,000 homeless
Kobe, Japan (1995): 5,000 dead, >16,000 injured, > 250,000 homeless
S. California (1994): 60 dead, 8,500 injured 5 Possible Causes of Variability in Natural Disasters : Possible Causes of Variability in Natural Disasters Density of population
Magnitude of the event
Inadequate building codes
Lack of plans and planning for disasters
Insufficient rescue and emergency response
lack of debris-removal equipment
Inadequate/damaged medical facilities
Little or no forecasting techniques to predict oncoming disasters 6 General Mitigation Strategies for Disasters : General Mitigation Strategies for Disasters Engineer buildings to withstand earthquakes
Develop and keep defined escape and emergency transit routes.
Design and keep earthquake clearing equipment.
Design, construct, and maintain water-supply and sewage-disposal facilities that will withstand earthquakes.
Improve forecasting or establish international networking
Reduce evacuation time
Improve road systems, establish defined routes of escape, control illegal residential and/or commercial development that may be more challenging to evacuate, better building design and codes of practices, establish shelters with necessary stocks.
Restrict development and redevelopment in high-risk areas
Enforce hurricane-resistant building codes
Educate public on successful mitigative measures 7 Disaster Plans : Disaster Plans Pre-event phase – planning step
Warning or alerting step
Response phase-reaction step
Recovery phase-revival step 8 Most disaster plans have four phases: Disaster Plan: Pre-event phase : Disaster Plan: Pre-event phase Anticipate and plan
Identify all available organizational resources
Inventory types & location of available supplies and equipment
Hardware, medical supplies
Identify private-sector resources
Review community vulnerability by district until entire country is covered
Define clear responsibilities for each agency/establish lines of communication
Designate and properly equip an emergency operations center with proper resources 9 Disaster Plan: Warning/Alerting phase : Disaster Plan: Warning/Alerting phase If possible advance warning
Hurricanes, tornadoes, floods
Alert emergency planning personnel
Activate emergency operations center
Provide accurate and timely information to media and public about
Who to contact
What to expect
What preparations should be made
Where to go to
When to act
How to prepare 10 Disaster Plan: Response phase : Disaster Plan: Response phase Protection and preventive services personnel such as fire, emergency medical, police, army, are first to arrive with help at site of major disaster
Isolate and contain disaster area
Provide security to the affected area to assure the safety of both victims and workers
Appoint senior coordinator person; responsibilities
Relay information to emergency operations center
Survey disaster site and assess number killed, injured
Make recommendations for action 11 Disaster Plan: Recovery phase : Disaster Plan: Recovery phase Provide follow-up care for (substantial) numbers of injured people
Provide survivors with
Food, water, shelter, clothing, sanitation facilities
Prevent rapid increase of rodent/insect populations
Floods promote unsanitary conditions
Maintain up-to-date information on distribution of vector-borne diseases at disaster site and surrounding areas 12