Disaster Mitigation


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IS Disaster Mitigation Possible? Interplay of humanistic and natural causative factors has narrowed the gap in what can be truly called a natural or man-made disaster Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D.Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. : 

IS Disaster Mitigation Possible? Interplay of humanistic and natural causative factors has narrowed the gap in what can be truly called a natural or man-made disaster Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D.Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. 1 ,

Potential Impact of Disasters : 

Potential Impact of Disasters Loss of lives amounting to million deaths for period 1968 –to present. Economic and human costs vary widely based on: Density of the population. Availability of emergency response capabilities Accessibility to outside assistance. Effective and efficient rescue operations. Strict adherence to building codes, design and construction practices Stability of soil and geographic location. 2

Types of Disasters : 

Types of Disasters Climatological Hurricanes Floods Geological Earthquakes Haiti Chile Turkey Japan Volcanic eruptions Tsunamis Immediate Bhopal, India (1984) Long-term Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986) Oil spills Aluminum Smelters Desalination plants Climate Change (Global Warming) Depletion of Ozone layer 3 Natural Disasters Man-made Disasters

Health Effects of Natural Disasters : 

Health Effects of Natural Disasters 4

Human costs in disasters? : 

Human costs in disasters? Haiti (2010): 250,000 dead, 50,000 injured, over 200,000 homeless Mexico City (1985): 9,000 dead, 30,000 injured, 95,000 homeless NW Iran (1990): 40,000 dead, > 200,000 homeless Kobe, Japan (1995): 5,000 dead, >16,000 injured, > 250,000 homeless S. California (1994): 60 dead, 8,500 injured 5

Possible Causes of Variability in Natural Disasters : 

Possible Causes of Variability in Natural Disasters Density of population Magnitude of the event Aggravating factors Inadequate building codes Lack of plans and planning for disasters Insufficient rescue and emergency response lack of debris-removal equipment Inadequate/damaged medical facilities Inadequate communication Little or no forecasting techniques to predict oncoming disasters 6

General Mitigation Strategies for Disasters : 

General Mitigation Strategies for Disasters Engineer buildings to withstand earthquakes Develop and keep defined escape and emergency transit routes. Design and keep earthquake clearing equipment. Design, construct, and maintain water-supply and sewage-disposal facilities that will withstand earthquakes. Improve forecasting or establish international networking Reduce evacuation time Improve road systems, establish defined routes of escape, control illegal residential and/or commercial development that may be more challenging to evacuate, better building design and codes of practices, establish shelters with necessary stocks. Provide refuge Restrict development and redevelopment in high-risk areas Enforce hurricane-resistant building codes Educate public on successful mitigative measures 7

Disaster Plans : 

Disaster Plans Pre-event phase – planning step Warning or alerting step Response phase-reaction step Recovery phase-revival step 8 Most disaster plans have four phases:

Disaster Plan: Pre-event phase : 

Disaster Plan: Pre-event phase Anticipate and plan Identify all available organizational resources Inventory types & location of available supplies and equipment Hardware, medical supplies Identify private-sector resources Review community vulnerability by district until entire country is covered Define clear responsibilities for each agency/establish lines of communication Designate and properly equip an emergency operations center with proper resources 9

Disaster Plan: Warning/Alerting phase : 

Disaster Plan: Warning/Alerting phase If possible advance warning Hurricanes, tornadoes, floods Alert emergency planning personnel Activate emergency operations center Provide accurate and timely information to media and public about Who to contact What to expect What preparations should be made Where to go to When to act How to prepare 10

Disaster Plan: Response phase : 

Disaster Plan: Response phase Protection and preventive services personnel such as fire, emergency medical, police, army, are first to arrive with help at site of major disaster Isolate and contain disaster area Provide security to the affected area to assure the safety of both victims and workers Appoint senior coordinator person; responsibilities Relay information to emergency operations center Survey disaster site and assess number killed, injured Make recommendations for action 11

Disaster Plan: Recovery phase : 

Disaster Plan: Recovery phase Provide follow-up care for (substantial) numbers of injured people Provide survivors with Food, water, shelter, clothing, sanitation facilities Prevent rapid increase of rodent/insect populations Floods promote unsanitary conditions Maintain up-to-date information on distribution of vector-borne diseases at disaster site and surrounding areas 12

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