Structure & Function of Carbohydrates

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This presentation deals with structure and function of carbohydrates.

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Structure & Function of Carbohydrates : 

Structure & Function of Carbohydrates Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D.

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Carbohydrates consist of the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) with a ratio of hydrogen twice that of carbon and oxygen.

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates 40% and 60% of total calories should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars.

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. In their basic form, carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides.

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates These simple sugars can combine with each other to form more complex carbohydrates. The combination of two simple sugars is a disaccharide.

Carbohydrate : 

Carbohydrate Carbohydrates consisting of two to ten simple sugars are called oligosaccharides, and those with a larger number are called polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides : 

Monosaccharides Classified by the number of carbons in the saccharide unit. Triose (3-carbons). Tetrose (4-carbons). Pentose (5-carbons) e.g. fructose. Hexoses (6-carbons) e.g. glucose and galactose.

Disaccharide : 

Disaccharide Two monosaccharides linked together E.g. sucrose or table sugar E.g. lactose = glucose + galactose E.g. maltose = glucose + glucose

Oligosaccharide : 

Oligosaccharide Three-ten monosaccharides linked together Raffinose (3 carbon) Stachyose (4 carbon)

Polysaccharides : 

Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides linked together in long chains Starch Glycogen Fiber Cellulose Chitin

Polysaccharide : 

Polysaccharide

Branched Polysaccharide : 

Branched Polysaccharide Branched: storage of energy starch - energy storage in plants (wheat, potatoes) glycogen - energy storage in animals (liver, muscle)

Linear Polysaccharide : 

Linear Polysaccharide Linear: structural material cellulose - found in cotton, plant cell walls. chitin-found in the exoskeleton of insects.

Cellulose Molecular Structure : 

Cellulose Molecular Structure

Cellulose Structure : 

Cellulose Structure

Function of Carbohydrates : 

Function of Carbohydrates Supplies energy-body, brain and the nervous system Source of carbon in metabolic processes Storage form of energy Structural elements of cells and tissues

Side effects of Carbohydrates : 

Side effects of Carbohydrates Excessive carbohydrates can cause an increase in the total caloric intake, causing obesity and pancreatic cancer in women. Deficient carbohydrates can cause a lack of calories (malnutrition), or excessive intake of fats to make up the calories. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets contribute to hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

References : 

References Harper, A. (1999). "Defining the Essentiality of Nutrients." In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edition, ed. M. E. Shills, et al. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins. Morrison, Gail, and Hark, Lisa (1999). Medical Nutrition and Disease, 2nd edition. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science. Subar, A. F., et al. (1998). "Dietary Sources of Nutrients in the U.S. Diet, 1989 to 1991." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98:537. Wardlaw, Gordon M., and Kessel, Margaret (2002). Perspectives in Nutrition, 5th edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

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