logging in or signing up Biology of the Cockroach drpattron68 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 7891 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (8) Dislike it (0) Added: June 02, 2009 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: drpattron68 (14 month(s) ago) purchase of this presentation can be obtained by contacting email@example.com Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... 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Pattron, Ph.D. Cockroach: Blattaria : Cockroach: Blattaria Types of household cockroaches : Types of household cockroaches American Cockroach Smokybrown Cockroach Oriental Cockroach Brownbanded Cockroach German Cockroach American cockroach : American cockroach Smokybrown cockroach : Smokybrown cockroach Oriental cockroach : Oriental cockroach Brownbanded cockroach : Brownbanded cockroach German cockroach : German cockroach Critical Thinking : Critical Thinking Describe the similarities and differences between the five different types of household cockroaches with reference to: Habitat Preferences Anatomy Morphology Reproductive success Scientific Classification : Scientific Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Dictyoptera Order: Blattaria Families Blaberidae Blattellidae Blattidae Cryptocercidae Polyphagidae Nocticolidae Behaviour : Behaviour Cockroaches are found in a wide range of environments Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal and will run away when exposed to light The Asian cockroach is attracted to light Anatomy & Morphology : Anatomy & Morphology Most species are about the size of a thumbnail The world's largest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach, which can reach 9 centimetres (3.5 in) in length and weigh more than 30 grams Cockroaches have a dorso-ventrally flattened body, with a relatively small head The mouthparts are on the ventral aspect of the head and include generalised chewing mandibles. They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible, antennae The first pair of wings are tough and protective, lying as a shield on top of the membranous hind wings All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins. The legs are sturdy, with large coxae and five claws each The abdomen has ten segments and several cerci Bio-importance : Bio-importance 4,000 species of cockroach 30 species are associated with human habitations 4 species are well known as pests American cockroach one of the best known species These earliest cockroach-like fossils are from the Carboniferous period between 354–295 million years ago The first fossils of modern cockroaches with internal ovipositors appear in the early Cretaceous period between 145-65 million years ago Reproduction: Eggs & ootheca : Reproduction: Eggs & ootheca The female cockroach produces a pheromone that initiates mating behaviour in males The female cockroach raises her wings in a dancing ritual that serves to expose her reproductive organs- stridulation During the mating process the male transfers his sperm packet directly into the reproductive organs of the female Some cockroaches are parthenogenetic Nearly all cockroaches put their eggs in a pillow like case called the ootheca The ootheca contains 40-250 eggs The ootheca is either carried around or deposited in cracks or crevices Those that are carried around are born after 3-4 months as they leave the mother ‘s body Eggs hatch as a result of the hatchling gulping air Life cycle of cockroach : Life cycle of cockroach A female cockroach carrying an oothecal case : A female cockroach carrying an oothecal case Sounds : Sounds Famous hissing noise Some cockroaches make a chirping noise What are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with sounds produced by cockroaches? Feeding habits : Feeding habits Most cockroaches are omnivorous Some are wood-eating e.g. Cryptocercus How has the feeding habits contributed to the success of the cockroaches? Breathing : Breathing Cockroaches breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae The tracheae of insects are attached to the spiracles The valves open when the CO2 level in the insect rises to a high level; then the CO2 diffuses out of the tracheae to the outside and O2 diffuses in Some very large species the body musculature may contract rhythmically to forcibly move air out and in the spiracles; this may be considered a form of breathing Nervous system : Nervous system The cockroach nervous system is decentralized, with some functions distributed in the ventral nerve cord The head Three fused ganglia The thorax Three ganglia The abdomen Six ganglia Important survival characteristics of cockroaches : Important survival characteristics of cockroaches Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food and are able to survive on limited resources like the glue from the back of postage stamps Some can go without air for 45 minutes or slow down their heart rate Some cockroaches are able to recover from being submerged underwater for half an hour Cockroaches do indeed have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with the lethal dose perhaps 6 to 15 times that for humans Important survival characteristics of cockroaches : Important survival characteristics of cockroaches One of the most commonly noted household pest insects Feed on human and pet food, and can leave an offensive odor Passively transport pathogenic microbes on their body surfaces Cockroaches infestations have been shown to be linked with allergic reactions in humans Cockroach control? What is it?How is it achieved? : Cockroach control? What is it?How is it achieved? Identification : Identification Why is Identification of the infesting cockroach crucial to successful management? Knowledge of the preferences and habitats of each species will help to provide more accurate and effective control, discuss Sanitation : Sanitation Anything that can be done to eliminate the sources of food, water and habitat for the cockroaches from the home environment will help in their control: Do not allow dirty dishes to accumulate in the sink and remain there overnight Keep food scraps in the refrigerator or in containers with tight-fitting lids If pets are in the home, keep the pet food in tightly sealed containers, and do not allow food to remain in the bowls overnight Remove garbage from the home on a routine basis. Keep outside containers covered, especially at night Periodically check and clean the evaporation pan under the refrigerator or freezer A critical point may be the area between the stove and cabinet, where grease and food scraps often accumulate. Pull the stove out periodically and clean thoroughly Trapping : Trapping Several types of cockroach traps are available Traps should be placed strategically where cockroaches are found especially at floor-wall junctions and wall-ceiling junctions Baits : Baits Cockroach baits contain an insecticide (insect killing agent) plus an attractant to draw cockroaches towards the baits Insecticides available as baits are hydramethylnon (Combat), sulfluramid (Raid Max) and avermectin (Roach Ender) Insecticides : Insecticides Insecticides provide the best control when applied in areas of maximum insect activity such as concealed areas like under household appliances (refrigerators, stoves, heaters, cookers etc) Perpendicular areas where shelving comes into contact with walls Behind pictures and cabinets and inside of cupboards In cracks and crevices Dusts : Dusts These compounds include boric acid and are harder to use but, the effects of dusting are long-lasting Boric acid when mixed with condensed milk may be used as a paste to attract and kill insects Follow-up or maintenance service or evaluation : Follow-up or maintenance service or evaluation This involves inspecting with a flashlight looking for signs of insect activity Flushing agent and/or the use of monitoring traps are used to determine if any there exists any remaining or new insect activity If insect activity is found, what course of action needs to taken into consideration Public Health Significance : Public Health Significance Cockroaches can cause the spread of diseases such as dysentery, gastroenteritis, typhoid and poliomyelitis They feed on anything of plant and animal origin, processed or unprocessed including fermenting substances, soiled septic dressings, hair, leather, parchment, wallpaper, faeces and food for human consumption Cockroaches and their faeces may cause allergic reactions, especially amongst sensitive individuals, e.g. asthmatics Food may be tainted with the characteristic smell of cockroach, which is produced by faeces and salivary/abdominal gland secretions, or by the dead insects References : References Adapted from Dr. James H. Jarratt, Mississippi State University Extension Servic, 1999. Bell, W.J., Roth, L.M., Nalepa, C. A. 2007. Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. Photos adapted from the Clemson University Extension. Klausnitzer, B. 1987. Insects: Their Biology and Cultural History. Bio-Serv Corporation (Rose Exterminator Company / Fisher Pest Control) Technical Meetings, March 17-24, 1998. O’Toole, C. 2002. Ed. Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. http://wn.wikipedia.org. http://www.vtaide.com/png/cockroach.htm. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.