General Principles of Entomology

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General Principles of Entomology & Classification : 

General Principles of Entomology & Classification Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D.

Introduction : 

Introduction Insects are the most numerous animals on earth It is estimated that there are 1.5 million to 30 million 97 % of insects are beneficial to man

Importance of Insects : 

Importance of Insects Pollination agents of most fruits and vegetables Serve as food for birds, fish, animals and man Destroy dangerous insects Provide useful food and materials for man e.g. honey, wax, silk and other products Assist in the decomposition and recycling of organic matter; dead plant and animal matter

Negative Effects of Insects : 

Negative Effects of Insects Transmit diseases of humans, domestic animals, and plants Compete with humans and other animals for food Feed on crops and ornamental plants Responsible for significant public health and economic impact on individuals, communities, populations, and nations

Classification of Insects : 

Classification of Insects Based on a standard classification system Insects belong to a group of animals called Arthropods (“jointed legs”) Three distinct body regions: head, thorax and abdomen Jointed legs (3 pairs) Antennae (1 pair) Wings (0-2 pair(s))

Insect Morphology : 

Insect Morphology

Insect Appendages: Legs : 

Insect Appendages: Legs

Insect Appendages: Wings : 

Insect Appendages: Wings

Insect Appendages: Antennnae : 

Insect Appendages: Antennnae

Insect Appendages: Mouth Parts : 

Insect Appendages: Mouth Parts

Growth & Development : 

Growth & Development Incomplete Complete

Complete Metamorphosis : 

Complete Metamorphosis

Gradual or Incomplete Metaphosis : 

Gradual or Incomplete Metaphosis

Classification of Insects : 

Classification of Insects Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insect Order: Diptera Family: Muscidae Genus: Musca Species: domestica Common name: Housefly

Insect Identification : 

Insect Identification Documented evidence obtained from classification to order Life cycle Damage caused Habitat

Coleoptera: Beetles and weevils : 

Coleoptera: Beetles and weevils

CharacteristicsColeoptera: Beetles and weevils : 

CharacteristicsColeoptera: Beetles and weevils Chewing mouthparts Complete metamorphosis Adults Hardened outer skeleton 2 pairs of wings, outer pair hardened - inner pair membranous Noticeable antennae Larvae Head capsule, 3 pairs of legs on the thorax no legs on the abdomen

Diptera: flies, mosquitoes, etc : 

Diptera: flies, mosquitoes, etc

CharacteristicsDiptera: flies & mosquitoes : 

CharacteristicsDiptera: flies & mosquitoes Complete metamorphosis Adults 1 pair of wings Soft-bodied Often hairy bodied Sponging (housefly) or piercing (mosquito) mouthparts Larvae Mouth hooks e.g. housefly Most larvae are legless No head capsule e.g. housefly Head capsule present e.g. mosquito

Hymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps, etc : 

Hymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps, etc

CharacteristicsHymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps : 

CharacteristicsHymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps Complete metamorphosis Most have chewing mouthparts Adults Membranous wings- 2 pairs Soft or slightly hardened body Larvae 0 legs (wasps, bees, ants), or 3 pair of legs on thorax and more than 4 pair of legs on abdomen (some sawflies)

Lepidoptera: butterflies & moths : 

Lepidoptera: butterflies & moths

CharacteristicsLepidoptera: butterflies & moths : 

CharacteristicsLepidoptera: butterflies & moths Complete metamorphosis Adults soft bodied 4 wings covered with small scales Mouthparts coiled, sucking tube. Adults feed on nectar Larvae Chewing mouthparts Caterpillar, worm-like, variable in color and voracious feeders Legs on the abdomen, as well as the thorax

Orthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis : 

Orthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis

CharacteristicsOrthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis : 

CharacteristicsOrthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis Simple metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts. Both adults and nymphs are damaging Immature stages – nymphs-- resemble adults but are wingless Adults Moderate to large, often rather hard bodied 2 pairs of wings. Forewings- elongate, narrow and hardened; hindwings- membranous with extensive folded area Hind legs of forms enlarged for jumping (except

ARACHNIDA : 

ARACHNIDA Spiders Spider Mites Ticks Scorpions Daddy-longlegs

Arachnida: Spider : 

Arachnida: Spider

Acari: ticks, spider mites : 

Acari: ticks, spider mites

Diplopoda: millipedesChilopoda: centipedes : 

Diplopoda: millipedesChilopoda: centipedes

Major Control Methods for Insects : 

Major Control Methods for Insects Legislative (quarantine) Physical or Mechanical Control Cultural Control Biological Control Chemical Control

Integrated Pest Management : 

Integrated Pest Management Concepts Monitoring and assessment Understanding pest and beneficial biology and life cycles Develop a control strategy Implement a control strategy Evaluate the level of control Diagnosis and detection

The End : 

The End

Slide 33: 

Questions?

Critical Thinking : 

Critical Thinking State what type of metamorphosis each of the following insects undergoes and why this type of metamorphosis is beneficial to each of them? Beetles Weevils Bed bugs Ants Crickets Cockroaches Butterflies Fleas Houseflies Bees Wasps Termites grasshoppers

References : 

References Adapted from Braman, K., Sparks, B., Adams, D. 2008. Insect Presentation. University of Georgia. College of Agriculture and Environmental Studies. Pattron, D. 2004. Recent Research in Public Health. New York: Scientific Publishers.