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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript General Principles of Entomology & Classification : General Principles of Entomology & Classification Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. Introduction : Introduction Insects are the most numerous animals on earth It is estimated that there are 1.5 million to 30 million 97 % of insects are beneficial to man Importance of Insects : Importance of Insects Pollination agents of most fruits and vegetables Serve as food for birds, fish, animals and man Destroy dangerous insects Provide useful food and materials for man e.g. honey, wax, silk and other products Assist in the decomposition and recycling of organic matter; dead plant and animal matter Negative Effects of Insects : Negative Effects of Insects Transmit diseases of humans, domestic animals, and plants Compete with humans and other animals for food Feed on crops and ornamental plants Responsible for significant public health and economic impact on individuals, communities, populations, and nations Classification of Insects : Classification of Insects Based on a standard classification system Insects belong to a group of animals called Arthropods (“jointed legs”) Three distinct body regions: head, thorax and abdomen Jointed legs (3 pairs) Antennae (1 pair) Wings (0-2 pair(s)) Insect Morphology : Insect Morphology Insect Appendages: Legs : Insect Appendages: Legs Insect Appendages: Wings : Insect Appendages: Wings Insect Appendages: Antennnae : Insect Appendages: Antennnae Insect Appendages: Mouth Parts : Insect Appendages: Mouth Parts Growth & Development : Growth & Development Incomplete Complete Complete Metamorphosis : Complete Metamorphosis Gradual or Incomplete Metaphosis : Gradual or Incomplete Metaphosis Classification of Insects : Classification of Insects Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insect Order: Diptera Family: Muscidae Genus: Musca Species: domestica Common name: Housefly Insect Identification : Insect Identification Documented evidence obtained from classification to order Life cycle Damage caused Habitat Coleoptera: Beetles and weevils : Coleoptera: Beetles and weevils CharacteristicsColeoptera: Beetles and weevils : CharacteristicsColeoptera: Beetles and weevils Chewing mouthparts Complete metamorphosis Adults Hardened outer skeleton 2 pairs of wings, outer pair hardened - inner pair membranous Noticeable antennae Larvae Head capsule, 3 pairs of legs on the thorax no legs on the abdomen Diptera: flies, mosquitoes, etc : Diptera: flies, mosquitoes, etc CharacteristicsDiptera: flies & mosquitoes : CharacteristicsDiptera: flies & mosquitoes Complete metamorphosis Adults 1 pair of wings Soft-bodied Often hairy bodied Sponging (housefly) or piercing (mosquito) mouthparts Larvae Mouth hooks e.g. housefly Most larvae are legless No head capsule e.g. housefly Head capsule present e.g. mosquito Hymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps, etc : Hymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps, etc CharacteristicsHymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps : CharacteristicsHymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps Complete metamorphosis Most have chewing mouthparts Adults Membranous wings- 2 pairs Soft or slightly hardened body Larvae 0 legs (wasps, bees, ants), or 3 pair of legs on thorax and more than 4 pair of legs on abdomen (some sawflies) Lepidoptera: butterflies & moths : Lepidoptera: butterflies & moths CharacteristicsLepidoptera: butterflies & moths : CharacteristicsLepidoptera: butterflies & moths Complete metamorphosis Adults soft bodied 4 wings covered with small scales Mouthparts coiled, sucking tube. Adults feed on nectar Larvae Chewing mouthparts Caterpillar, worm-like, variable in color and voracious feeders Legs on the abdomen, as well as the thorax Orthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis : Orthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis CharacteristicsOrthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis : CharacteristicsOrthoptera: grasshopper, cricket, preying mantis Simple metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts. Both adults and nymphs are damaging Immature stages – nymphs-- resemble adults but are wingless Adults Moderate to large, often rather hard bodied 2 pairs of wings. Forewings- elongate, narrow and hardened; hindwings- membranous with extensive folded area Hind legs of forms enlarged for jumping (except ARACHNIDA : ARACHNIDA Spiders Spider Mites Ticks Scorpions Daddy-longlegs Arachnida: Spider : Arachnida: Spider Acari: ticks, spider mites : Acari: ticks, spider mites Diplopoda: millipedesChilopoda: centipedes : Diplopoda: millipedesChilopoda: centipedes Major Control Methods for Insects : Major Control Methods for Insects Legislative (quarantine) Physical or Mechanical Control Cultural Control Biological Control Chemical Control Integrated Pest Management : Integrated Pest Management Concepts Monitoring and assessment Understanding pest and beneficial biology and life cycles Develop a control strategy Implement a control strategy Evaluate the level of control Diagnosis and detection The End : The End Slide 33: Questions? Critical Thinking : Critical Thinking State what type of metamorphosis each of the following insects undergoes and why this type of metamorphosis is beneficial to each of them? Beetles Weevils Bed bugs Ants Crickets Cockroaches Butterflies Fleas Houseflies Bees Wasps Termites grasshoppers References : References Adapted from Braman, K., Sparks, B., Adams, D. 2008. Insect Presentation. University of Georgia. College of Agriculture and Environmental Studies. Pattron, D. 2004. Recent Research in Public Health. New York: Scientific Publishers. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.