Research Study Designs

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Research Study Designs: 

Research Study Designs Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. Public Health & Safety Consultant

Contents: 

Contents Introduction Case Series Studies Case Control Studies Cohort Studies Randomized Controlled Studies Meta-analysis Systematic Reviews Conclusion References

Introduction : 

Introduction Research designs provide the theoretic framework for logical, systematic, collection, analysis and interpretation of scientific information All scientific studies follow a particular research design The selection of a particular research design is dependent on the objectives of the study and the data to be collected

Case Series Studies: 

Case Series Studies Collection of reports on the treatment of individuals with the same condition or reports on a single patient No control group Lacks statistical validity Easy to understand Completed in a short time period

Case Control Studies: 

Case Control Studies Individuals with a particular condition are compared with people who do not Take histories (study and control group), analyze data and draw conclusions Estimate the odds of developing a condition/disease Can be quickly done Very effective for conditions with rare outcomes

Cohort Studies: 

Cohort Studies Longitudinal studies Observations followed over time and compared Prospective or historical/retrospective Establish causation of a disease Uncertainty of confounding variables Require large sample size Inefficient for rare outcomes Take longer periods to complete

Randomized Controlled Studies: 

Randomized Controlled Studies Two groups Treatment group Control group Patients randomly assigned to groups Gold standards in medical research Ethical concerns Confounding variables

Meta-Analyses: 

Meta-Analyses Systematic objective way to combine data from many studies Pooled estimate of treatment effectiveness Statistical significance Publication bias Theoretical framework Misleading results

Systematic Reviews: 

Systematic Reviews Comprehensive survey All relevant studies of highest level of evidence Rigorous analysis Systematic review

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Research designs are used by researchers, scientists and interested persons to direct and conduct logical and systematic research to increase our understanding of the world around us

References: 

References Gravetter, F.J., Forzano, L-B. A. 2006. Research Methods for the Behavioural Sciences. California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning McBurney D.H., White T.L. 2007. Research Methods. California: Thomson Higher Education