Food Protection & Safety

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This presentation deals with food protection and safety.

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Food Protection & Safetyfor Twenty-first Century : 

1 Food Protection & Safetyfor Twenty-first Century Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. Public Health Scientist & Consultant

Contents : 

2 Contents Introduction Food Safety & Globalization Relationship between lifestyles, food safety, and emerging food pathogens Emerging pathogens E.coli 0157:H7 Foodborne diseases Classification of foodborne diseases Common potentially hazardous foods How can foods be protected and controlled against foodborne diseases? Principles of food safety Four pillars of food safety Food safety management system HACCP Food regulatory agencies Food safety surveillance Conclusion Reference

Introduction : 

3 Introduction Food safety is becoming more prevalent today as we witness both local and International outbreaks of foodborne diseases. E. coli poisoning from spinage in 2006, affected 200 people in the United States and Canada. Dioxins poisoning from animal feed in 1999, affected approximately 4,100 dogs and cats in United States, Canada and Mexico Dioxin tainted food products ranging from eggs to pork distributed form Belgium to Europe and North America, Australia and New Zealand Melamine tainted infant milk in 2008 affected 51,900 infants and young children were hospitalized for urinary track and kidney problems in China. Infants in Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR Taiwan were also affected

Food Safety & Globalization : 

4 Food Safety & Globalization Protecting the public from foodborne diseases has become a national and international priority Emergence of new foodborne diseases Globalization of the food industry New set of threats to public health safety Shift in the way food is produced, processed, distributed

Relationship between lifestyle, food safety, and emerging foodborne pathogens : 

5 Relationship between lifestyle, food safety, and emerging foodborne pathogens Food consumed is becoming more multinational in origin Increased availability of fast food More convenient for individuals and families to eat away from home Greater risk for developing foodborne diseases Globalization of food supply makes it difficult for traditional regulatory control

Emerging Pathogens : 

6 Emerging Pathogens E. coli 0157: H7-recognized as a significant foodborne pathogen BSE-progressive neurological disorder that affects the brain of cow. The cause is linked to group of insoluble proteins called prions. FMD-acute viral infection of cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, elephants. Does not affect human directly, but indirectly can lead to severe economic burden and public health hazards

E. coli 0157: H7 : 

7 E. coli 0157: H7 Responsible for 73,000 cases of foodborne diseases, 61 deaths in the US per year (CDC, ) E. coli 0157: H7 found in the intestines of cattle Improper slaughtering and rendering processes can lead to cross contamination of beef Young children, the elderly, pregnant and immunocompromised are most vulnerable E. coli 0157:H7 causes blood diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome, acute kidney failure

Foodborne diseases : 

8 Foodborne diseases 76 million persons in the US experience foodborne diseases per year (CDC, ) 325,000 hospitalizations per year 5000 deaths per year Most common foodborne diseases in US Campylobacter Salmonella Listeria monocytogenes E. coli 0157:H7 Norwalk-like viruses

Classification of foodborne diseases : 

9 Classification of foodborne diseases CDC only tackles nine foodborne diseases 250 different foodborne diseases of public health importance Foodborne diseases classified as: Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Parasites Natural toxins Prions

Classification of foodborne diseases : 

10 Classification of foodborne diseases Infection e.g. Salmonellosis Intoxication e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum Toxic-mediated infection e.g. Clostridium perfringens

Common Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)-Foods that support growth of pathogenic foodborne bacteria are called potentially hazardous foods : 

11 Common Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)-Foods that support growth of pathogenic foodborne bacteria are called potentially hazardous foods Meats, poultry and fish Milk and milk products Shellfish Eggs Soy protein foods Sprouts and raw seeds Raw fruits and vegetables

How can food be protected and foodborne disease controlled? : 

12 How can food be protected and foodborne disease controlled? The general objective of any food safety programme is: To prevent the transmission of foodborne pathogens To ensure food is safe and will not cause harm to anyone

Principles of food safety : 

13 Principles of food safety Center around the six factors that control bacterial growth in foods Nutrient level Temperature maintained at Acidity Time held at unfavorable temperature Moisture Oxygen demand

Four Pillars of Food Safety : 

14 Four Pillars of Food Safety Cleanliness Temperature control Cross-contamination Personal hygiene

First Pillar of Food Safety : 

15 First Pillar of Food Safety Cleanliness-refers to sanitary condition in which food is stored, processed, handled, prepared and served All food-contact surfaces should cleaned and sanitized with a food grade chemical sanitizer such as chlorine, quaternary ammonia or iodine

Second Pillar of Food Safety : 

16 Second Pillar of Food Safety Temperature control-maintain food below or above the temperature danger zone The temperature danger zone is the range of temperature between 41 F and 140 F where foodborne pathogens can survive and grow The intent of temperature management is to prevent or minimize bacteria present in the food from entering the log phase

Third Pillar of Food Safety : 

17 Third Pillar of Food Safety Cross-contamination is the process whereby bacteria or contaminants in one food in transferred to another food either by humans, animals, air, water, utensils, equipment and food contact surfaces Cross-contamination can be prevented by good cleaning and sanitation practices, good manufacturing practices, and good handling practices

Fourth Pillar of Food Safety : 

18 Fourth Pillar of Food Safety Personal hygiene-refers to the personal habits of food handlers that enable them to keep their body clean and healthy and not pose a health risk to the food being prepared

Food Safety Management System-HACCP : 

19 Food Safety Management System-HACCP Incorporates all four pillars of food safety Designed to control and prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases Based on the concept of in-process monitoring and control rather than end-product testing which is costly and wasteful Takes the views of all stakeholders from cleaner to cook when considering the development the safety plan

HACCP = Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point : 

20 HACCP = Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Seven Principles of HACCP Hazard analysis Critical control points Critical limits Monitoring procedures Corrective actions Verification procedures Documentation & record keeping

1. Principle : 

21 1. Principle Hazard analysis-involves identify all potential or real chemical, physical and biological agents that can affect food safety Review of all stages in the process of manufacture from initial receipt of raw materials to the final product

2. Principle : 

22 2. Principle Critical control points-points in the food process where hazards are identified and controlled

3. Principle : 

23 3. Principle Critical limit-is the narrow range of tolerance allowed at a particular critical control point

4. Principle : 

24 4. Principle Monitoring of each critical control point to ensure non-deviation from accepted criteria

5. Corrective actions : 

25 5. Corrective actions Necessary predetermined actions taken when deviations occur at a critical control point in order to restore control and compliance

6. Verification procedures : 

26 6. Verification procedures Essential procedures to ensure all critical control points are accurately monitored, corrective actions are taken when necessary and all steps are documented for internal as well as external review Allows for internal and external audit of the HACCP system Facilitates compliance with external regulatory agencies

7. Documentation & record keeping : 

27 7. Documentation & record keeping Time-temperature logs Equipment Sanitation logs Food processing plant cleaning and sanitation logs Monitoring logs Product specification logs Corrective action logs Quality control logs

Food Regulatory Agencies : 

28 Food Regulatory Agencies United States USDA-responsible for all inspections of meat, poultry, and egg products USFDA-responsible for enforcing the Federal Food and Drug and Cosmetic Act and other Public Health Laws. FDA Seafood HACCP Model Food Code Registration of LACF Trinidad and Tobago Food and Drugs Inspectorate, Ministry of Health-responsible for all processed food, drugs, cosmetics and medical devices Public Health Inspectorate, Ministry of Health-responsible for all raw and unprocessed food

Food Safety Surveillance : 

29 Food Safety Surveillance Identifying hazards before they reach critical levels United States National Antimicrobial Resistant Monitoring System = CDC, FDA and USDA PulseNet = FDA, CDC, and USDA and State Health Departments Trinidad and Tobago Food and Drugs Inspectorate Public Health Inspectorate

Conclusion : 

30 Conclusion Food safety is a fundamental right and as such should be treated so by all stakeholders Food poorly produced by a few people can be transported around the world and infect many Food safety management programmes such as HACCP focuses on proactive monitoring and control of critical control points and taking necessary corrective actions in the manufacturing process to ensure safe food Regulatory agencies play an important role in identifying possible hazards and taking appropriate actions before the situation reaches critical levels Networking, database development and sharing of food safety information and taking actions in a timely manner among countries of the world are necessary for global food safety

References : 

31 References Morgan, M. T. Environmental Health. California: Thomson Learning. 2003. Medeiros LC, Hillers VN, Chen G, Bergmann V, Kendall P, Schroeder M. Design and development of food safety knowledge and attitude scales for consumer food safety education. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Nov;104(11):1671-7. Anderson JB, Shuster TA, Hansen KE, Levy AS, Volk A. A camera's view of consumer food-handling behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb;104(2):186-91. Redmond EC, Griffith CJ. Consumer food handling in the home: a review of food safety studies. J Food Prot. 2003 Jan;66(1):130-61. Moore, Oliver, “U.S. Strain of E. Coli Strikes Canadian.” The Globe and Mail (Toronto), September 26, 2006. A15.2 Weise, Elizabeth, “Poison Pet Food Woes Seem to Hit Cats Harder.” USA Today, May 8, 2007.

Thank You : 

32 Thank You Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. The End