The Relationship between Hazards and Food Safety

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The Relationship between Hazards and Food Safety: 

The Relationship between Hazards and Food Safety Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. Public Health Scientist and Consultant All Rights Reserved © 2009, Dr. Deryck D. Pattron

Definitions: 

Definitions A hazard is any physical, chemical or biological entity that may lead to injury or death to the consumer Food safety is the assurance that when food is consumed in its usual way does not pose a threat to human health and well being Safe food handling practices refer to controls used in the preparation, storage and presentation of food to reduce, eliminate or prevent contamination Contamination refers to the unintended presence of harmful substances in food

Why Food Safety?: 

Why Food Safety? To protect all customers To protect the reputation of producers To produce safe wholesome food To reduce downtime and absenteeism at work and at school To be in compliance with local, regional and international laws To facilitate trade and tourism To improve health of the population, locally, regionally and international To avoid litigation

Where do Hazards come from? : 

Where do Hazards come from? Soil Air Water Humans Animals Surfaces Utensils Cover cloths Clothes

What are hazards that affect food safety?: 

What are hazards that affect food safety? Physical Dirt Glass Paper Plastic Iron Chemical Food additives Pesticides Cleaning compounds Drugs Cosmetics Biological Bacteria e.g. Salmonella Viruses e.g. hepatitis A Fungi e.g. yeast and moulds

How do Foods become Contaminated?: 

How do Foods become Contaminated? Contact between food and hazards; physical, chemical and biological Contact between food and hazards can occur through contact via the air, water, soil, humans, animals, surfaces and clothes

Ten Main Reasons for Foodborne Illnesses: 

Ten Main Reasons for Foodborne Illnesses Poor hygienic practices of food handlers Insufficient thawing of frozen meat Food stored within the danger zone Cross contamination from raw foods to processed or cooked foods Insufficient cooking of foods at the appropriate temperature Storing foods within the temperature danger zone (5 ºC to 60 °C) Insufficient cooling of food prior to refrigeration Improper heating of foods above 73.9 º C for at least 15 sec Consumption of raw seafood, poorly cooked eggs and unpasteurized milk Consumption of cooked foods with pathogenic microorganisms

Major Foodborne Diseases in the Caribbean Region: 

Major Foodborne Diseases in the Caribbean Region Salmonellosis Shigellosis Bacillus cereus Campylobacter Clostridium perfringens E. coli 0157:H 7 Botulism Staphylococcal intoxication Hepatitis A Ciguatera intoxication Scombroid (histamine) Trichinosis Taeniasis

Major Foods Implicated in Foodborne Diseases: 

Major Foods Implicated in Foodborne Diseases Poultry Eggs Meat Fish Milk and dairy products Fresh fruits and vegetables

Major Strategies to Prevent Foodborne Diseases: 

Major Strategies to Prevent Foodborne Diseases Education Training Good personal practices Proper refrigeration practices Thorough cooking of foods Portable water Good sanitary practices Avoid eating raw, uncooked or unpasteurized foods Storage of food out of the temperature danger zone Good food handling practices Obtain food from approved sources Use of careful time and temperature control at receiving and storage

References: 

References McSwane, D., Rue, N, Linton, R. 2003. Essentials of food safety and sanitation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Trickett, J. 2000. Food hygiene for food handlers. London: Thomson Learning Longree, K., Armbruster, G. 1987. Quantity Food Sanitation. New York: John Wiley and sons