Functional area of cerebrum

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Functional area of cerebrum :

Dr Pankaj Maheria Functional area of cerebrum

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Regions of the Brain Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum 2

CEREBRUM:

CEREBRUM Language function Movements of Voluntary muscles 3

Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum):

Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum) The surface is made of ridges ( gyri ) and grooves ( sulci ) 4

Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum):

Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum) Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain Include more than half of the brain mass 5

Layers of the Cerebrum:

Layers of the Cerebrum Gray matter Outer layer Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies 6

Layers of the Cerebrum:

Layers of the Cerebrum White matter Fiber tracts inside the gray matter Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres 7

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Gyrus ( gyri ) – a fold or convolution Sulcus ( sulci ) – groove between adjacent gyri Central sulcus of Rolando Lateral fissure of Sylvius 8

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Cerebrum 9

Cerebrum:

Cerebrum Highest center – perceives sensations, commands skilled movements, provides awareness of emotions and is necessary for memory, thinking, language abilities and other higher mental functions Functional areas: Anatomically described according to lobes ( frontal , parietal , temporal , occipital , limbic and insular ) Functionally described according to numbered areas Broadmann’s classification 52 areas Campbell classification 20 areas Economo classification 109 areas Vogt classification 200 areas 10

Cerebrum:

Cerebrum Frontal lobe - motor area; seat of mental activities Parietal lobe - somesthetic area Occipital lobe - visual center Temporal lobe - hearing center 11

FRONTAL LOBE:

FRONTAL LOBE Pre – central gyrus Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus Pars Orbitalis Pars Triangularis Pars Opercularis Paracentral lobule Marginal sulcus Orbital gyrus 12

TEMPORAL LOBE:

TEMPORAL LOBE Superior temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus 13

PARIETAL LOBE:

PARIETAL LOBE Post – central gyrus Superior parietal lobule Intraparietal sulcus Inferior parietal lobule Angular gyrus Supramarginal gyrus Parieto – occipital sulcus Pre - cuneus 14

OCCIPITAL LOBE:

OCCIPITAL LOBE Parieto – occipital sulcus Cuneus Calcarine sulcus Lingual gyrus 15

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“the brain, taken largely, is divided into its enveloping membranes, its medullary substance, and its ventricles; these last being filled with a vapor of special use to the anima or psyche, a vapor called ‘animal spirit’. The brain is in continual motion by reason of the motions of motor nerves, very many of which arise in posterior part of the brain, and is subject to continual effects from the motions of sensory nerves forward, where are located the cerebral organs suited to receive the sensory forms.” Albertus Magnus (1206-1280) Phrenology of Gall (1758-1828) and Spurzheim (1776-1832) 16

Type of cortical area:

Type of cortical area Three type of functional area Motor area Sensory area Association area 17

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18

Frontal lobe:

Frontal lobe 19

Functional area of frontal lobe :

Functional area of frontal lobe Primary motor area (area 4 of Brodmann) Premotor area (area 6 ) Supplementary motor area ( Msll ) Frontal eye field (Area 8) Motor speech area (area 44 and 45) Prefrontal area 20

Primary motor area:

Primary motor area Location: Precentral gyrus on supralateral surface and extends to the anteriro part of paracentral lobule on the medialsurafce of cerebral hemisphere. Large number of pyramidal cells including Betz cells About 40% pyramidal fibres arise from this area. 21

Primary motor area:

Primary motor area 4 22

Primary motor area:

Primary motor area Control voluntary motor activity of opposite side of body. Significant bilateral control of muscle of the upper part of face, tounge ( genioglossus ) mandible, larynx, pharanx nd axial masculature . 23

Primary motor area:

Primary motor area Inverted homunculus. Clinical correlation: Hemiplegic of opposite side with sparing of mastication, laryngeal, pharyngeal , upper facial and extraocular muscle. 24

Premotor area:

Premotor area Location: Anterior to primary motor area in the posterior part of superior , middle and inferior frontal gyri, and extended on the medial surface of the hemisphere. Wider above than below and lack of giant pyramidal cells 25

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Premotor area:

Premotor area Main site for cortical origin of extra pyramidal tracts. Responsible for successful performance of the voluntary motor activities. Applied anatomy: Lesion of Premotor area produce difficulty in the performance of skilled movements . 27

Supplementary motor area:

Supplementary motor area Location in the middle frontal gyrus on the medial surface of the hemisphere anterior to the paracentral lobule. Body represented by from before backwards in craniocaudal order. Stimulation of this area produces complex movements, Applied anatomy: lesion of this area produce bilateral flexor hypotonic with no paresis or paralysis. 28

Frontal eye filed:

Frontal eye filed Location : posterior part of middle frontal gyrus just anterior to the facial area of precentral gyrus. Stimulation to this region causes deviation of both the eye specially to the opposite side (conjugate movement of eyes). Control voluntary scanning movement of eye and is independent of visual stimuli. Connected to visual area by association fibers. 29

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Frontal eye filed:

Frontal eye filed Applied anatomy : Lesion of one cerebral hemisphere causes the two eyes to the opposite side. The involuntary tracking movement of the eye when following moving object is unaffected since the lesion does not involve the visual cortex of occipital lobe. 31

Motor speech area of Broca: (area 44 and 45 of Brodmann):

Motor speech area of Broca: (area 44 and 45 of Brodmann) The motor speech area of Broca is located in pars triangularis area 45 and pars opercularis area 44 of inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe. Function : production of expressive speech/ vocalization. Applied anatomy: Motor aphasia 32

Prefrontal area:

Prefrontal area Location : the part of the frontal lobe rostral to the motor and premotor area Concerned with the individual ‘s personality . it experts its influence in determining the initiative and judgment of an individual . 33

Prefrontal area:

Prefrontal area Concerned with depth of emotion social moral and ethical awareness, concentration , orientation and foresightness. Associating experiences that are necessary for the production of abstract ideas. 34

Prefrontal area:

Prefrontal area Applied: Bilateral destruction of area due to trauma or tumor result in profound change in personality. There is loss of concentration, initiative and judgment. 35

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Further Investigation Phineas Gage: Phineas Gage was a railroad worker in the 19th century living in Cavendish, Vermont. One of his jobs was to set off explosive charges in large rock in order to break them into smaller pieces. On one of these instances, the detonation occurred prior to his expectations, resulting in a 42 inch long, 1.2 inch wide, metal rod to be blown right up through his skull and out the top. The rod entered his skull below his left cheek bone and exited after passing through the anterior frontal lobe of his brain. Frontal 36

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Remarkably, Gage never lost consciousness, or quickly regained it (there is still some debate), suffered little to no pain, and was awake and alert when he reached a doctor approximately 45 minutes later. He had a normal pulse and normal vision, and following a short period of rest, returned to work several days later. However, he was not unaffected by this accident. Learn more about Phineas Gage: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phineas_Gage Frontal http://www.sruweb.com/~walsh/gage5.jpg 37

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Q: Recalling what you have just learned regarding the frontal lobe, what possible problems or abnormalities may Gage have presented with subsequent to this type of injury (remember the precise location of the rod through his brain) ? A: Gage’s personality, reasoning, and capacity to understand and follow social norms had been diminished or destroyed. He illustrated little to no interest in hobbies or other involvements that at one time he cared for greatly. ‘After the accident, Gage became a nasty, vulgar, irresponsible vagrant. His former employer, who regarded him as "the most efficient and capable foreman in their employ previous to his injury," refused to rehire him because he was so different.’ Q: It is suggested that Gage’s injury inspired the development of what at one time was a widely used medical procedure. What might this procedure be, and how does it relate to Gage’s injury? A: The frontal lobotomy. This has been used with the intention to diminish aggression and rage in mental patients, but generally results in drastic personality changes, and an inability to relate socially. This procedure is largely frowned upon today, with the development of neurological drugs as treatments. Frontal 38

Functional area of parietal lobe:

Functional area of parietal lobe Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann) Secondary sensory area ( Smll) Sensory association area (Area 5 and 7 of Brodmann) Sensory speech area of Wernicke (Area 39 and 40 of Brodmann) 39

Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann):

Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann) Location : Postcentral gyrus and extends onto the medial surface in the posterior part of paracentral lobule. Area 3a lies most anteriorly, apposing area 4, the primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe; Area 3b is buried in the posterior wall of the central sulcus; Area 1 lies along the posterior lip of the central sulcus; and Area 2 occupies the crown of the postcentral gyrus. 40

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3, 1, 2 Primary sensory area 3a, 3b, 1, 2 SI 41

Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann):

Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann) Histology: Granular cortex Densely packed satellite cells with scattered and scanty number of small and medium sized pyramidal cells. 42

Primary sensory area (Area 3,2, and 2 of Brodmann):

Primary sensory area (Area 3,2, and 2 of Brodmann) Connection: Afferent projection fibers from Posteromedial and posterolateral part of ventral nucleus of thalamus Pyramidal cells of sensory area contribute fibers cortico-spinal, cortico-bulbar and cortico- nuclear tract Association fiber with other part of brain 43

Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann):

Primary sensory area (Area 3,1, and 2 of Brodmann) Function: Primary somesthetic area localizes analysis and discriminates different modalities of cutaneous and propriceptive sense. Sensory homunculus Lower part of post central gyrus act as taste receptive centre. Applied : Loose of sensation from opposite side of body.the crude touch,pain temprture senssation oftern returns but this is belived to be due to function of the thlamuis. 44

Secondary sensory area:

Secondary sensory area Location : Upper lip of the posterior ramus of lateral sulcus Face lie most anterior and leg most posterior Body represented bilaterally. Related with pain perception Ablation of this area may relive intractable pain 45

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Sensory association area (Area 5 and 7 of Brodmann) :

Sensory association area (Area 5 and 7 of Brodmann) Location Superior parietal lobule Concerned with perception of shape, size ,roughness, and texture of the objects Applied : Tactile agnosia or astergnosis Amorphosynthesis Asomatognosia Dressing apraxias. 47

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5 7 48

Functional area of temporal lobe:

Functional area of temporal lobe Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann) Secondary area/ auditory association area (Area 22of Brodmann) 49

Sensory speech area of Wernicke (Area 39 and 40 of Brodmann) :

Sensory speech area of Wernicke (Area 39 and 40 of Brodmann) Location : Left dominant hemisphere occupying the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe and angular (39) and supramarginal (40) gyri of inferior parietal lobule. 50

Sensory speech area of Wernicke (Area 39 and 40 of Brodmann) :

Sensory speech area of Wernicke (Area 39 and 40 of Brodmann) Function : Interpretation of language through visual and auditory input. Constant availability of learned word patterns. Applied : Receptive sensory aphasia Global aphasia 51

Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann):

Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann) Location : Inferior wall of lateral sulcus to be very specific on the superior surface of superior temporal gyrus ( Heschl’s gyrus) Adjacent part of superior temporal gyrus 52

Primary auditory area:

Primary auditory area Loudness, quality, pitch 41 42 Secondary auditory area Interpretation of words 53

Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann):

Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann) Connection : Input form both side but more from opposite side 54

Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann):

Primary auditory area (Area 41 and 42 of Brodmann) Function : Reception of isolated impression of loudness, quality and pitch of the sound Source of sound Applied anatomy: Unilateral lesion : slight loss of hearing because it receives auditory input from the cochleae of both side, but greater loss in opposite side. Bilaterla lesion: complete cortical deafness 55

Secondary area/ auditory association area (Area 22of Brodmann):

Secondary area/ auditory association area (Area 22of Brodmann) location : Lateral surface of the superior temporal gyrus slightly posterior to the primary auditory area which it surrounds Connection : Primary auditory area 56

Secondary area/ auditory association area (Area 22of Brodmann):

Secondary area/ auditory association area (Area 22of Brodmann) Function: Correlates them with past auditory experiences Interpretation of sound heard. Applied Word deafness (auditory verbal agnosia ) 57

Functional area of occipital lobe:

Functional area of occipital lobe Primary visual area/ striate area (Brodmann’s area 17) Secondary visual area/ Visual association area (Brodmann’s area 18 & 19) 58

Primary visual area/ striate area (Brodmann’s area 17):

Primary visual area/ striate area (Brodmann’s area 17) Location: In the wall and floor of the posterior part of calcarine sulcus. May extend around the occipital pole on the superolateral surface of hemisphere. Visual stria of Gennari 59

Primary visual area:

Primary visual area Vision Secondary visual area 18 17 60

Primary visual area/ stiate area (Brodmann’s area 17):

Primary visual area/ stiate area (Brodmann’s area 17) Connection : Afferent fibres from lateralgeniculate body via geniculocalcarine tract /optic radiation Temporal half of ipsilateral retina and nasal half of contra lateral part of retina Superior retinal quadreants : superiro wall of calcarine sulcus Inferiro retinal quadreants : Inferiro wall of calcarine sulcus Macular area : extensive cortical representation , occupying approximately posterior one third of visual cortex. 61

Primary visual area/ stiate area (Brodmann’s area 17):

Primary visual area/ stiate area (Brodmann’s area 17) Function : Reception and perception of isolated visual impression like color size form motion illumination and transparency. Applied : Crossed homonymous hemianopia Inferior quadrantic hemianopia Suerior quadrantic hemianopia Causes : vascular accidents, tumors and injures from gunshot wounds. 62

Secondary visual area/ Visual association area (Brodmann’s area 18 & 19):

Secondary visual area/ Visual association area (Brodmann’s area 18 & 19) Location : Surrounds the primary area and occupies most of the remaining visual cortex on the medial and superolateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. Connection : Afferent form primary visual area Function: Correlated the information with past visual experiences, thus enabling the individual to recognize and appreciate what he is seeing. 63

Visual anosognosia(Anton Syndrome): The main characteristic is denial of blindness by a patient who obviously cannot see. The patient acts as though he can see, and when attempting to walk, collides with objects, even to the point of injury. He may offer excuses for his difficulties: “I lost my glasses,” “The light is dim,”etc. The lesions in cases of negation of blindness extend beyond the striate cortex to involve the visual association areas.:

Visual anosognosia (Anton Syndrome): The main characteristic is denial of blindness by a patient who obviously cannot see. The patient acts as though he can see, and when attempting to walk, collides with objects, even to the point of injury. He may offer excuses for his difficulties: “I lost my glasses,” “The light is dim,”etc . The lesions in cases of negation of blindness extend beyond the striate cortex to involve the visual association areas. 64

Gustatory area (Brodmann’s area 43):

Gustatory area ( Brodmann’s area 43) Taste area Location: inferior part of parietal lobe, posterior to general sensory area for the mouth or in the lower end of post central gyrus in the superior wall of lateral sulcus or in the adjoining area of the insula 65

Olfactory area (Brodmann’s area 28):

Olfactory area ( Brodmann’s area 28) Location : anterior part of parahippocampal gyrus and uncus . 66

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Language Speech Writing Calculation 3D perception Singing Playing Musical instrument Cerebral dominance 68

Where are areas 13, 14, 15, 16, 27, 49, 50, 51?:

Where are areas 13, 14, 15, 16, 27, 49, 50, 51? Present only in monkeys 69

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Brodmann areas for human & non-human primates Areas 3, 1 & 2 - Primary Somatosensory Cortex (frequently referred to as Areas 3, 1, 2 by convention) Area 4 - Primary Motor Cortex Area 5 - Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 6 - Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex)( Supplementary motor area ) Area 7 - Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 8 - Includes Frontal eye fields Area 9 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 10 - Anterior prefrontal cortex (most rostral part of superior and middle frontal gyri) Area 11 - Orbitofrontal area (orbital and rectus gyri, plus part of the rostral part of the superior frontal gyrus) Area 12 - Orbitofrontal area (used to be part of BA11, refers to the area between the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior rostral sulcus) Area 13 and Area 14 * - Insular cortex Area 15 * - Anterior Temporal Lobe Area 17 - Primary visual cortex (V1) Area 18 - Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 19 - Associative visual cortex (V3) Area 20 - Inferior temporal gyrus Area 21 - Middle temporal gyrus Area 22 - Superior temporal gyrus , of which the caudal part is usually considered to contain the Wernicke's area Area 23 - Ventral Posterior cingulate cortex Area 24 - Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex Area 25 - Subgenual cortex Area 26 - Ectosplenial area Brodmann areas for human & non-human primates Area 27 - Piriform cortex Area 28 - Posterior Entorhinal Cortex Area 29 - Retrosplenial cingulate cortex Area 30 - Part of cingulate cortex Area 31 - Dorsal Posterior cingulate cortex Area 32 - Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex Area 33 - Part of anterior cingulate cortex Area 34 - Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus ) Area 35 - Perirhinal cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus ) Area 36 - Parahippocampal cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus ) Area 37 - Fusiform gyrus Area 38 - Temporopolar area (most rostral part of the superior and middle temporal gyri) Area 39 - Angular gyrus , considered by some to be part of Wernicke's area Area 40 - Supramarginal gyrus considered by some to be part of Wernicke's area Areas 41 & 42 - Primary and Auditory Association Cortex Area 43 - Subcentral area (between insula and post/ precentral gyrus) Area 44 - pars opercularis , part of Broca's area Area 45 - pars triangularis Broca's area Area 46 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 47 - Inferior prefrontal gyrus Area 48 - Retrosubicular area (a small part of the medial surface of the temporal lobe) Area 52 - Parainsular area (at the junction of the temporal lobe and the insula ) 70

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Lobes and Structures of the Brain B. A. C. D. E. F. G. http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif 71

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Lobes and Structures of the Brain B. A. (groove) C. (groove) D. E. F. G. B. Frontal Lobe G. Parietal Lobe F. Occipital Lobe D. Temporal Lobe A. Central Sulcus (groove) E. Transverse Fissure C. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif 72

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Cortical Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif 73

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Cortical Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. A. Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus B. Broca’s Area C. Orbitofrontal Cortex K. Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus I. Primary Gustatory Cortex J. Somatosensory Association Cortex G. Primary Visual Cortex H. Visual Association Area E. Primary Auditory Cortex F. Wernike’s Area D. Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif 74

Thank you:

Thank you 75

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