Female reproducative system II Histolgy

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Female Reproductive System II:

Female Reproductive System II

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Mammary Gland Placenta Umbilical cord 2 Pankaj Maheria

Mammary gland:

Mammary gland 3 Pankaj Maheria

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Modified apocrine sweat gland only present in mammals Rudimentary in male Only in woman they become functional and undergo development at puberty under influence of hormones. Highest functional and developmental activity during pregnancy and lactation. Undergo progressive atrophy and involution after menopause. Both merocrine and apocrine secretion are involved in production of milk. 4 Pankaj Maheria

Gross structure :

Gross structure Made up of glandular tissue which secretes milk Consist of 15 to 20 lobes Each lobe is a cluster of alveoli and is drained by a lactiferous duct Lactiferous duct converge toward the nipple and open on it. Lactiferous sinus 5 Pankaj Maheria

Excretory (lactiferous) ducts:

Excretory (lactiferous) ducts 6 Pankaj Maheria

The stroma:

The stroma Supporting frame work Partly fibrous and partly fatty Fibrous stroma: Suspensory ligament of cooper Fatty stroma : Main bulk of the gland Distributed all over the breast except beneath the areola and nipple. 7 Pankaj Maheria

Breast: Fatty Tissue:

Breast: Fatty Tissue 8 Pankaj Maheria

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Parenchyma Nonlactaing mammary gland Lactating mammary gland Less glandular More glandular Alveoli are not developed- represented by solid cords of epithelial cells . Alveoli are well developed and large and branched ,lined by cuboidal epithelium and associated myoepithelial cells. Extensive branching of duct system from lobule. Extensive branching alveoli form the lobule. Ducts are few. The intralobular ducts are lined by two layers of cells: luminal layers of cuboidal epithelial cells and basal layers of myopeithelial cells. The intralobular ducts are lined by cuboidal epithelial, whereas the lactiferous ducts are lined by stratified columnar or cuboidal epithelium. Duct lumen is not clearly visible and contains no secretion Lumina of aveoli and ducts are filled with eosinophilic secretory material and appear vaculated due to presence of fat droplets. 12 Pankaj Maheria

Stroma :

Stroma Nonlactaing mammary gland Lactating mammary gland More connective tissue and adipose tissue Less connective tissue and adipose tissue. Interlobular connective tissue septum is thick and is composed of dense fibers and adipose tissue. Interlobular connective tissue septum is thin. Abundant intralobular loose connective tissue containing many fibroblasts. Scanty intralobular connective tissue , often infiltrated with lymphocytes and plasma cells 13 Pankaj Maheria

Secreting cells of alveoli:

Secreting cells of alveoli Abudant rER , moderate number of large mitochondria , a supranuclear Golgi apparatus and a number of dense lysosome Large lipid droplet and secretor vesicles may be present in the apical cytoplasm. Merocrine secretion : protein component of milk Apocrine secretion : fatty or lipid component 14 Pankaj Maheria

Placenta :

Placenta 15 Pankaj Maheria

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A specialized extra embryonic tissue in which blood vessels of the foetus are brought into close intimacy with the maternal blood for purpose of nutrition, respiration , excretion and other metabolic activities during intrauterine life of the foetus. 16 Pankaj Maheria

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Pankaj Maheria 17 Discoidal in shape 500 gm 15 - 20 cm in diameter and 3 cm thickness. Derived from foetal and maternal components. Two surface: Feotal surface Maternal surface

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Structure :

Structure Pankaj Maheria 24 Many villi cut at different planes. Villi are separated by intervillous space containing maternal blood that comes to space through spiral arteries of decidua . Exchange of gases and metabolites takes place between the maternal blood in the intervillous space and foetal blood present in capillaries in villi across the placental barrier.

Villi :

Villi A central core of connective tissue containing blood vessels. Covering of inner layer of cytotrophoblast (Cuboidal epithelium) during the first half of pregnancy, which disappears during the second half of pregnancy Outer layers of syncytiotrophoblast (a multinucleated syncytium with indistinct cell margin). The syncytiotrophoblast produces progesterone , oestrogen ,HCG and other placental hormones 25 Pankaj Maheria

The placental barrier:

The placental barrier Pankaj Maheria 26 In the first trimester it consists of the syncytiotrophoblast , the cytotrophoblast ( Langhans ' cells), the villus mesenchyma (in which numerous ovoid Hofbauer cells that exhibit macrophage properties are found) and the fetal capillary walls

The placental barrier:

The placental barrier Pankaj Maheria 27 During the 4th month the cytotrophoblast disappears from the villus wall (interactive diagram) and the thickness of the barrier decreases while the surface area increases (roughly 12 m 2 towards the end of the pregnancy). In the 5th month the fetal vessels have multiplied their branches and gotten closer to the villus surface.

The placental barrier:

The placental barrier Pankaj Maheria 28 During the 6th month the nuclei of the syncytiotrophoblast group together in the so-called proliferation knots. The other zones of the syncythiothrophoblast lack nuclei and are adjacent to the capillaries (exchange zones).

Umbilical cord :

Umbilical cord 29 Pankaj Maheria

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Connect feotus with placenta 50 cm in length and 1 – 2 cm in width. Derived from connective stalk of embryo. 30 Pankaj Maheria

Structures :

Structures Single umbilical vein Two umbilical arteries Whatton’s jelly A tube of amnion (simple cuboidal epithelium ) 31 Pankaj Maheria

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Thank You… 33 Pankaj Maheria

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Pankaj Maheria 34 Differentiating features of lactating and non lactating mammary gland? What is function of placenta? Write the layer of placental blood barrier?

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