Female reproductive system I Histolgy

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Female reproductive system I:

Female reproductive system I

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Dr Pankaj Maheria 2

Introduction :

Introduction Six major function Production of female gametes, the ova, by the process of oogenesis . Reception of male gametes, the spermatozoa Provision of suitable environment for fertilization of ova by spermatozoa. Provision of an environment for development of fetus. Expulsion of developed fetus to external environment. Nutrition to new born. 3 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Structural unit:

Structural unit The ovaries The genital tract The mammary gland. 4 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Ovary :

Ovary 5 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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3- 5 cm long Flattened ovoid shape Ovarian stroma: Spindle shaped stromal cells Fine collagen fibres Ground substance 6 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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Cortex : Numerous follicles Corpus lutea Corpora albicantes Degnetared follicles ( Atretic ) 7 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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Superfical cortex More fibrous Tunica albuginea Germinal epithelium Medulla Highly vascular Hilus cells Helicine arteries 8 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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9 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Development of ovarian follicle:

Development of ovarian follicle Folliculogenesis Four stages Primordial follicle Primary follicle Secondary follicle Mature Graafian follicle Development 10 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Primordial follicle:

Primordial follicle Smallest and simplest Peripheral part Primary oocyte (20-25 µm) surrounded by a single layer of squamous cells. Primary oocytes : Large nucleus with dispersed finely granular chromatin Prominent nucleolus Little cytoplasm 11 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Primary follicle :

Primary follicle Primary oocyte enlarge in size (50-80 µm). Unilaminar primary follicle Multilaminar primary follicle ( zona granulosa ) Basal lamina Zona pellucida Theca folliculi 12 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Secondary follicle:

Secondary follicle Deeper in ovarian cortex. Follicular antrum Oocyte enlarge and reaches its full size (125 µm) and eccentrically in a thickened area of granulosa called cumulus oophorus . Follicle size: 2mm Theca folliculi : two layer Theca interna Theca externa 13 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Mature Graafian follicle:

Mature Graafian follicle Secondary oocyte First polar body: Follicle enlarge in size as fluid accumulates in antrum Two division Membrana granulosa Cumulus oophorus Size :10mm Bulging out of cortex on surface 14 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Mature Graafian follicle:

Mature Graafian follicle Corona radiata Ovulation Secondary meiotic division 15 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Atretic follicle:

Atretic follicle Process of follicular degeneration may occur at stage in development. Each ovrian cycle 20 follicles begin to mature , usually all but one becoming atretic at some stage before complete maturity . Peripharal vascular stroma invades the theca interna,membrana granulosa and antrum . 16 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Atretic follicle:

Atretic follicle In early stage: granulosa cells and oocyte are shed into antrum and degenerate . Wrinkled zona pellucida remains in antrum for sometime. Glassy membrane Corpus fibrosum 17 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Corpus luteum :

Corpus luteum After ovulation the wall of follicle collapses, become infolded and get transformed into temporary endocrine organ External capsule: Poor define Form by Theca externa 18 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Corpus luteum: Lutein cell:

Corpus luteum: Lutein cell Lipid droplet, abudant sER and mitochondria. Two type Granulosa lutein cells Theca lutein cells 19 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Corpus luteum :

Corpus luteum Corpus luteum of menstruation. Corpus luteum of pregnancy Corpus albican 20 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Genital tract :

Genital tract 21 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Fallopian tubes:

Fallopian tubes Ova from the surface of ovaries to uterine cavity Site for fertilization by spermatozoa Shaped like elongated funnel Four parts Interstitial part Isthmus Ampulla infundibulum 22 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Fallopian tubes: structure:

Fallopian tubes: structure Mucosa: Lining epithelium: Simple ciliated columnar epithelium Two type of cells Ciliated columanr cells Non ciliated peg cells Many branching folds that make the lumen of uterine tube higly irregular 23 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Fallopian tubes: structure:

Fallopian tubes: structure Muscle layer Smooth muscel Outer longitudinal Inner circular Serosa Mesothelium supported by connective tissue 24 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Uterus :

Uterus Thick pear shaped muscular organ Pelvic cavity Provides a suitable site and environment for implantation of blastocyst and grwoth of foetus . Three parts Fundus Body Cervix Measurement 7.5 X 5 X 2.5 25 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Structures: Perimetrium :

Structures: Perimetrium Outer serous coat Mesothelial lining Connective tissue reach in blood vessels and elastic fibres . Continuous with broad ligaments. 26 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Structure : Myometrium:

Structure : Myometrium Middle muscular coat 15 mm thick Smooth muscle fibres arranged in ill defined layers Inner and outer layers arranged longitudinally Stratum vasculare Middle layer is very thick containing circularly arrange smooth muscle, numerous blood vessels and lymphatics . During pregnancy: hypertrophy and hyperplasia 27 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Structure : Endometrium :

Structure : Endometrium Mucosal lining of uterine cavity. Lining epithelium: simple columanr –partly ciliated. Lamina propria : Highly cellular Large amount of ground substance and no collagen fibres Blood vessles and simple tubular uterine glands wich are coiled in deeper part. 28 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Structure : Endometrium :

Structure : Endometrium Two layers Stratum functionalis (two third) Stratum basalis (one third) Arteries Straight or basal arteries Coiled or spiral arteries Highly sensitive to circulating hormones 29 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Structure : Endometrium :

Structure : Endometrium Stratum functionalis Cyclic structural change response to hormones Prepare the uterus for implantation and nourishment of the embryo and foetus . If implantation does not occur , this layer shed during menstruation leaving deep basal layer intact for reconstruction of new functional layers. 30 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Cyclic changes in Endometrium:

Cyclic changes in Endometrium Menstrual phase (menses): 1 – 4 days Begins : when fertilization and implantation fail to occur. Vaginal discharge of menstrual flow containing blood ,uterine fluid and fragments of necrotic endometrial tissue . 31 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Cyclic changes in Endometrium:

Cyclic changes in Endometrium Proliferative phase (follicular phase) Oestrogen from maturing follicle in the ovary Rapid proliferation of cells of stratum basalis Restoration of lost endometrial surface . 32 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Cyclic changes in Endometrium:

Cyclic changes in Endometrium Secretory phase ( Luteal phase) Progesterone from corpus luteum Increased secretory activity of uterine gland. Succulent and edematous , preparing ground for reception of blastocyst for implantation. 33 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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34 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Cervix of uterus :

Cervix of uterus Cervical canal Lining : simple columanr to stratified squamous epithelium. Endometrium: Not undergo cyclic changes Large branched tubular cervical gland No spiral arteries. 35 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Terminologies :

Terminologies Menorrhagia (excess bleeding during menses) Metrorrhagia ( uterine bleeding between menses ) Endometritis – well defined organic lesion Infection Polyps Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) – abnormal bleeding without organic lesion Endometriosis – presence of endometrial glands/ stroma outside uterine cavity 36 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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Fibroid uterus 37 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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Fibroid uterus Pep smear 38 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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Fibroid uterus Pep smear Cancers of cervix Teratoma s 39 Dr Pankaj Maheria

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40 Dr Pankaj Maheria

Thank u…….:

Thank u……. Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, but anyone can start today and make a new ending. Maria Robinson

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Structural difference in endometrium of proliferative and secretory phase. Draw and label diagram of mature graafian follicle What is peg cells and write is functions? Dr Pankaj Maheria 42

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Dr Pankaj Maheria 43

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