Male reproductive system Histolgy

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Male reproductive system:

Male reproductive system Dr Pankaj Maheria

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Four functional component Testis System of duct Epididymis, vas deference and ejaculatory duct Accessory sex gland Pair of seminal vesicles, a single prostate and bulbourethral gland Penis 3

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Testis 5

General architecture of testis :

General architecture of testis Placed outside the body in scrotum. Oval in shape Measurement Length : 5 cm Width : 2.5 cm Wight : 10 – 15 gm Covering Tunica vaginalis Tunica albuginea Tunica vasulosa 6

General architecture of testis:

General architecture of testis Lobules Seminiferous tubules Straight tubules Rete testis Mediastinum testis Efferent ductules Interstitial cells of Leyding 7

Seminiferous tubules :

Seminiferous tubules Highly convoluted tightly packed tubules. 50 – 80 cm in length and 150 – 250 µm diameter. Site for spermatogenesis Specialized stratified germinal epithelium (Seminiferous epithelium) Two type of cells Germ cells : Spermatogenic series Non-germ cells : Sertoli cells Myoid cells 8

Spermatogenic cells :

Spermatogenic cells Arranged in developmentally higher order from the basement membrane to lumen Spermatogonia Spermatids Spermatozoa Spermatogenesis 9

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Spermatogonia First cells Origin Spermatogonia remain dormant until puberty. They are always in contact with the basal lamina of the tubule. Type : Type A Type B 12

Primary spermatocytes:

Primary spermatocytes Postion : Cell layer luminal to the spermatogonia . They appear larger than spermatogonia . They immediately enter the prophase of the first meiotic division, which is extremely prolonged (about 22 days!). A large number of primary spermatocytes is always visible in cross-sections through seminiferous tubules. Cell divisions, from the formation of primary spermatocytes and onwards, to the production of the spermatocytes , are incomplete. The cells remain connected by bridges of cytoplasm. The completion of the first meiotic division results in the formation of Secondary spermatocytes , 13

Secondary spermatocytes,:

Secondary spermatocytes , which are smaller than primary spermatocytes . They rapidly enter and complete the second meiotic division and are therefore seldom seen in histological preparations. Their division results in the formation of Spermatids with haploid number of chromoses and reduction amount of DNA 1n per cells. 14


Spermatids which lie in the luminal part of the seminiferous epithelium. They are small (about 10 µm in diameter) with an initially very light (often eccentric) nucleus. The chromatin condenses during the maturation of the spermatids into spermatozoa, and the nucleus becomes smaller and stains darker. The terminal phase of spermatogenesis is called spermiogenesis and consists of the differentiation of the newly formed spermatids into Spermatozoa 15


Spermatozoa Chnages take place in spermatids : Formation of acrosomal cap from Golgi apparatus that covers the nucleus. Condensation and enlogation of nuclues formation of flagellum from centrioles Formation of helical mitochondrial sheath, around the middle piece from elongated mitochondria Casting off of excess cytoplasm as cytoplasmic droplets. The mature human spermatozoon is about 60 µm long and actively motile. It is divided into head, neck and tail. 16

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Sertoli cells:

Sertoli cells Tall columnar cells which extend from basement membrane to lumen of seminiferous tubules Many cytoplasmic process which surround all spermatogenic cells Oval nuclei with well developed nucleoli Tight junction Divide tubules in two compartment Basal Apical Under control of FSH 18

Blood testis barrier:

Blood testis barrier 19


functions Support Protection and nutrition Phagocytosis Secretion Component of testicular fluid. Androgen binding protein which help in concentrate testosterone. Inhibin Blood testis barrier 20

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Germinal epithelium of the testicle . 1: basal lamina 2: spermatogonia 3: spermatocyte 1st order 4: spermatocyte 2nd order 5: spermatid 6: mature spermatid 7: Sertoli cell 8: tight junction ( blood testis barrier ) 21

Interstitial tissue:

Interstitial tissue Interstitial tissue a delicate vascular tissue that surround and support the seminiferous tubules Continuous with tunica vasulosa 22

Leydig cells:

Leydig cells Specialized endocrine cells Large size, polyhedral in shape Acidophilic cytoplasm Secrete testosterone 23

Rete testis :

Rete testis 24

Ductulus efferenes :

Ductulus efferenes 25

Genital ducts :

Genital ducts 26

Epididymis :

Epididymis Comma shaped structure on posterolateral aspect of testis. 6 m long highly coiled tube Supported by connective tissue Part Head, Neck and body Lining epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Two type of cells Tall columanr with long microvilli called stereocilia Small basal cells 27

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Circularly arrange smooth muscle fibres . Increased in thickness from head to tail Richly innervated by sympathetic fibres . Intense rhythmic contraction cause expulsion of sperm during ejaculation. 28

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Function: Storage of spermatozoa Maturation of spermatozoa Absorption of testicular fluid 29

Vas deferens :

Vas deferens Thick muscular tube Tail of epididymis to prostatic urethra Distal part : ampulla Ejacultory duct pierces the prostatic urethra. Three coats Mucosa Muscular layers Adventia 30

Vas deferens :

Vas deferens Mucosa : Pseudostratified columanr epithelium Lamina propria Stereocilia Thrown into longitudinal fold 31

Vas deferens :

Vas deferens Muscle layer Smooth muscle Three layers Lobgitudinal , middle circular and outer longitudinal Adavetitia Fibroelastic connective tissue carry blood vessels and nerves 32

Ejaculatory duct:

Ejaculatory duct Two in numbers 2 cm Formed by union of duct of seminal vesicle and ampulla of vas deferens. Lined by simple columnar epithelium. 33

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Accessory sex glands:

Accessory sex glands 35

Seminal vesicle :

Seminal vesicle An elongated blind tube highly coiled upon itself to reduce a small size Secretion: Thick yellow viscous alkaline fluid rich in fructose that nourishes the sperm. Ascorbic acid and prostaglandin. 36

Structure :

Structure Mucosa Complicated fold, which branched and anastomose forming crypts and cavities. Epithelium: Secretory type Pseudostratified low columanr Some places it is simple columnar to cuboidal Lamina propria 37

Structure :

Structure Muscle layers Smooth muscle Inner circular Outer longitudinal Adventitia Loose connective tissue containing blood vessels and nerves. 38

Seminal vesicle :

Seminal vesicle The cocktail of compounds which is released by the seminal vesicles in addition to fructose has three main functions: Formation of the sperm coagulum, Regulation of sperm motility and the suppression of immune function in the female genital tract. The secretion of the seminal vesicles is the third fraction of the ejaculate (the spermatozoa are released with the second fraction - the contents of the vas deferens). 39

Prostate :

Prostate Largest accessory gland Size of Chestnut and weight 20 gm in adult male. 30 -50 branched tubuloaveolar gland in fibromascular stroma Duct opens in urethra Two capsule True capsule False capsule Secretion: Thin milky white fluid reach in citric acid phosphate ,amylase and fibrinolysin . 75% of seminal fluid. 40

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Three group of gland Mucosal Submucosal Main Mucosal gland Small tubular gland in inner zone Open directly in urethra Submucosal and main gland Tubuloalveolar glands Open in prostatic sinus of urethra through long ducts. 41

Microscopic structure :

Microscopic structure Parenchyma Fibromascular stroma 42

Parenchyma :

Parenchyma Four anatomical and clinically distinct zone Peripheral zone Central zone Transitional zone Periurethral zone 43

Parenchyma :

Parenchyma Large irregular prostatic alveoli with wide lumen. Tall columnar Secretory lining epithelium Prominent round basal nuclei and pale staining cytoplasm. Small basal cells at base 44

Parenchyma :

Parenchyma Corpora amylacea Condensation of prostatic secretion Increase with age May become calcified 45

Fibromuscular stroma:

Fibromuscular stroma Smooth muscle fibres mixed with connective tissue All direction Contains Blood vessels, lymphatic and nerve 46

Prostatic urethra:

Prostatic urethra Crescent shaped with many diverticula Transitional epithelium Stratified columanr epithelium 47

Bulbourethral gland :

Bulbourethral gland Two in number Size of pea Situation: Deep perineal pouch Secretion: Mucus like fluid 48

Penis :

Penis Skin Buck’s fascia Tunica albuginea Corpora cavernosa and corpora spongiosum Urethra Sinuses of morgani Stratified columnar epithelium Paraurethral gland of Littre Glands penis External urethral meatus and navicular fossa Stratified squamous epithelium 49

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Thank you… 51

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